Open Access
Vet. Res.
Volume 41, Number 5, September–October 2010
Number of page(s) 14
Published online 23 July 2010
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2010) 41:72
  • Alexander D., Paramyxoviridae, Iowa State University Press, Iowa, 2003. [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Chettle N.J., Relationship of parakeet/Netherland/449/75 virus to other avian paramyxovirus, Res. Vet. Sci. (1978) 25:105–106. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Avian paramyxoviruses, Vet. Bull. (1980) 50:737–752. [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Collins M.S., Pathogenicity of PMV-3/parakeet/Netherlands/449/75 for chickens, Avian Pathol. (1982) 11:179–185. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Hinshaw V.S., Collins M.S., Yamane N., Characterization of viruses which represent further distinct serotypes (PMV-8 and PMV-9) of avian paramyxoviruses, Arch. Virol. (1983) 78:29–36. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Collins M.S., Characterization of avain paramyxoviruses of serotype PMV-3 isolated from commercial turkey in Great Britain, Avian Pathol. (1984) 13:215–221. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alexander D.J., Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses, in: Swayne D.E., Glisson J.R., Jackwood M.W., Pearson J.E., W.M. Reed (Eds.), A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens, American Association of Avian Pathologists, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, USA, 1998, pp. 156–163. [Google Scholar]
  • Anderson C., Kearsley R., Alexander D.J., Russell P.H., Antigenic variation in avian paramyxovirus type 3 isolates detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies, Avian Pathol. (1987) 16:691–698. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Anderson C.L., Russell P.H., Monoclonal antibodies against avian paramyxovirus-3: antigenic mapping and functional analysis of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein and the characterization of nonspecific monoclonal antibodies, Arch. Virol. (1988) 101:49–63. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beck I., Gerlach H., Burkhardt E., Kaleta E.F., Investigation of several selected adjuvants regarding their efficacy and side effects for the production of a vaccine for parakeets to prevent a disease caused by a paramyxovirus type 3, Vaccine (2003) 21:1006–1022. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Capua I., De Nardi R., Beato M.S., Terregino C., Scremin M., Guberti V., Isolation of an avian paramyxovirus type 9 from migratory waterfowl in Italy, Vet. Rec. (2004) 155:156. [Google Scholar]
  • Chang P.C., Hsieh M.L., Shien J.H., Graham D.A., Lee M.S., Shieh H.K., Complete nucleotide sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 6 isolated from ducks, J. Gen. Virol. (2001) 82:2157–2168. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • De Leeuw O., Peeters B., Complete nucleotide sequence of Newcastle disease virus: evidence for the existence of a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:131–136. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gough R.E., Alexander D.J., Avian paramyxovirus type 4 isolated from a ringed teal (Calonetta leucophrys), Vet. Rec. (1984) 115:653. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Huang Z., Panda A., Elankumaran S., Govindarajan D., Rockemann D.D., Samal S.K., The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus determines tropism and virulence, J. Virol. (2004) 78:4176–4184. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kaleta E.F., Werner O., Hemberger Y., Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.), Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (2010) 123:103–110. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Krishnamurthy S., Samal S.K., Nucleotide sequences of the trailer, nucleocapsid protein gene and intergenic regions of Newcastle disease virus strain Beaudette C and completion of the entire genome sequence, J. Gen. Virol. (1998) 79:2419–2424. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kumar S., Nayak B., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 3 reveals an unusually long trailer region, Virus Res. (2008) 137:189–197. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kumar S., Nayak B., Samuel A.S., Xiao S., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus-3 strain Wisconsin: evidence for the existence of subgroups within the serotype, Virus Res. (2010) 149:78–85. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lamb R., Parks G., Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  • Macpherson I., Watt R.G., Alexander D.J., Isolation of avian paramyxovirus other than Newcastle disease virus from commercial poultry in Great Britain, Vet. Rec. (1983) 112:479–480. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Maldonado A., Arenas A., Tarradas M.C., Luque I., Astorga R., Perea J.A., Miranda A., Serological survey for avian paramyxoviruses from wildfowl in aquatic habitats in Andalusia, J. Wildl. Dis. (1995) 31:66–69. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mayo M.A., A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV, Arch. Virol. (2002) 147:1655–1663. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Millar N.S., Chambers P., Emmerson P.T., Nucleotide sequence of the fusion and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein genes of Newcastle disease virus, strain Ulster: molecular basis for variations in pathogenicity between strains, J. Gen. Virol. (1988) 69:613–620. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Morrison T., McQuain C., Sergel T., McGinnes L., Reitter J., The role of the amino terminus of F1 of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in cleavage and fusion, Virology (1993) 193:997–1000. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nayak B., Kumar S., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75, Virol. J. (2008) 5:124. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Paldurai A., Subbiah M., Kumar S., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus type 8 strains goose/Delaware/1053/76 and pintail/Wakuya/20/78, Virus Res. (2009) 142:144–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Panda A., Huang Z., Elankumaran S., Rockemann D.D., Samal S.K., Role of fusion protein cleavage site in the virulence of Newcastle disease virus, Microb. Pathog. (2004) 36:1–10. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Redmann T., Zeydanli M.M., Herbst W., Kaleta E.F., Isolation of a paramyxovirus-3 from turkeys with respiratory tract disease in Germany, Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (1991) 98:138–141 (in German). [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Reed L.J., Muench H., A simple method of estimation of 50% end points, Am. J. Hyg. (1938) 27:493–497. [Google Scholar]
  • Rout S.N., Samal S.K., The large polymerase protein is associated with the virulence of Newcastle disease virus, J. Virol. (2008) 82:7828–7836. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Russell P.H., Awang I.P., Parsons G., Alexander D.J., Pathogenicity of PMV-3/Turkey/England/Midland poultry holdings/1981 for chickens and turkeys, Avian Pathol. (1989) 18:125–134. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Saif Y.M., Mohan R., Ward L., Senne D.A., Panigrahy B., Dearth R.N., Natural and experimental infection of turkeys with avian paramyxovirus-7, Avian Dis. (1997) 41:326–329. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Samuel A.S., Kumar S., Madhuri S., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 9 and comparison with other paramyxoviruses, Virus Res. (2009) 142:10–18. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shortridge K.F., Alexander D.J., Collins M.S., Isolation and properties of viruses from poultry in Hong Kong which represent a new (sixth) distinct group of avian paramyxoviruses, J. Gen. Virol. (1980) 49:255–262. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Smit T., Rondhuis P.R., Studies on a virus isolated from the brain of a parakeet (Neophema sp), Avian Pathol. (1976) 5:21–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Stallknecht D.E., Senne D.A., Zwank P.J., Shane S.M., Kearney M.T., Avian paramyxoviruses from migrating and resident ducks in coastal Louisiana, J. Wildl. Dis. (1991) 27:123–128. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Subbiah M., Xiao S., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 2 (strain Yucaipa) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses, Virus Res. (2008) 137:40–48. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tumova B., Robinson J.H., Easterday B.C., A hitherto unreported paramyxovirus of turkeys, Res. Vet. Sci. (1979) 27:135–140. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wakamatsu N., King D.J., Kapczynski D.R., Seal B.S., Brown C.C., Experimental pathogenesis for chickens, turkeys, and pigeons of exotic Newcastle disease virus from an outbreak in California during 2002-2003, Vet. Pathol. (2006) 43:925–933. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Warke A., Stallknecht D., Williams S.M., Pritchard N., Mundt E., Comparative study on the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of wild bird isolates of avian paramyxovirus 2, 4, and 6 in chickens, Avian Pathol. (2008) 37:429–434. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Xiao S., Paldurai A., Nayak B., Subbiah M., Collins P.L., Samal S.K., Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 7 (strain Tennessee) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses, Virus Res. (2009) 145:80–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]