Free Access
Issue
Vet. Res.
Volume 41, Number 5, September–October 2010
Number of page(s) 12
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2010032
Published online 24 May 2010
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2010) 41:60
  • Allan G.M., Ellis J.A., Porcine circoviruses: a review, J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (2000) 12:3–14. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Basta S., Knoetig S.M., Spagnuolo-Weaver M., Allan G., McCullough K.C., Modulation of monocytic cell activity and virus susceptibility during differentiation into macrophages, J. Immunol. (1999) 162:3961–3969. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Borca M.V., Gudmundsdottir I., Fernandez-Sainz I.J., Holinka L.G., Risatti G.R., Patterns of cellular gene expression in swine macrophages infected with highly virulent classical swine fever virus strain Brescia, Virus Res. (2008) 138:89–96. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Byrd T.F., Multinucleated giant cell formation induced by IFN-gamma/IL-3 is associated with restriction of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to cell invasion in human monocyte monolayers, Cell Immunol. (1998) 188:89–96. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chamorro S., Revilla C., Alvarez B., Alonso F., Ezquerra A., Dominguez J., Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of porcine blood monocytes and its relation with maturation, Immunology (2005) 114:63–71. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chang H.W., Jeng C.R., Liu J.J., Lin T.L., Chang C.C., Chia M.Y., et al., Reduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine alveolar macrophages by porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2)-induced interferon-alpha, Vet. Microbiol. (2005) 108:167–177. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chang H.W., Jeng C.R., Lin T.L., Liu J.J., Chiou M.T., Tsai Y.C., et al., Immunopathological effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on swine alveolar macrophages by in vitro inoculation, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) 110:207–219. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chang H.W., Jeng C.R., Lin C.M., Liu J.J., Chang C.C., Tsai Y.C., et al., The involvement of Fas/FasL interaction in porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus co-inoculation-associated lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro, Vet. Microbiol. (2007) 122:72–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chianini F., Majo N., Segales J., Dominguez J., Domingo M., Immunohistochemical characterisation of PCV2 associate lesions in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of pigs with natural postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) 94:63–75. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • D’Allaire S., Moore C., Cote G., A survey on finishing pig mortality associated with porcine circovirus diseases in Quebec, Can. Vet. J. (2007) 48:145–146. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Fort M., Fernandes L.T., Nofrarias M., Diaz I., Sibila M., Pujols J., et al., Development of cell-mediated immunity to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2009) 129:101–107. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gilpin D.F., McCullough K., Meehan B.M., McNeilly F., McNair I., Stevenson L.S., et al., In vitro studies on the infection and replication of porcine circovirus type 2 in cells of the porcine immune system, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) 94:149–161. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gruber M.F., Weih K.A., Boone E.J., Smith P.D., Clouse K.A., Endogenous macrophage CSF production is associated with viral replication in HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages, J. Immunol. (1995) 154:5528–5535. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Haine V., Fischer-Smith T., Rappaport J., Macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the pathogenesis of HIV infection: potential target for therapeutic intervention, J. Neuroimmune Pharmacol. (2006) 1:32–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Herschke F., Plumet S., Duhen T., Azocar O., Druelle J., Laine D., et al., Cell-cell fusion induced by measles virus amplifies the type I interferon response, J. Virol. (2007) 81:12859–12871. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hogan L.H., Weinstock J.V., Sandor M., TCR specificity in infection induced granulomas, Immunol. Lett. (1999) 68:115–120. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hosang K., Knoke I., Klaudiny J., Wempe F., Wuttke W., Scheit K.H., Porcine luteal cells express monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1): analysis by polymerase chain reaction and cDNA cloning, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) 199:962–968. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Huggett J., Dheda K., Bustin S., Zumla A., Real-time RT-PCR normalisation; strategies and considerations, Genes Immun. (2005) 6:279–284. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • James D.G., A clinicopathological classification of granulomatous disorders, Postgrad. Med. J. (2000) 76:457–465. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kim J., Chung H.K., Jung T., Cho W.S., Choi C., Chae C., Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of pigs in Korea: prevalence, microscopic lesions and coexisting microorganisms, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2002) 64:57–62. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kim J., Chae C., Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but not interleukin-8 in granulomatous lesions in lymph nodes from pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, Vet. Pathol. (2003) 40:181–186. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kim J., Chae C., Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 in porcine circovirus 2-induced granulomatous inflammation, J. Comp. Pathol. (2004) 131:121–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Krakowka S., Ellis J.A., McNeilly F., Gilpin D., Meehan B., McCullough K., Allan G., Immunologic features of porcine circovirus type 2 infection, Viral Immunol. (2002) 15:567–582. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Larochelle R., Antaya M., Morin M., Magar R., Typing of porcine circovirus in clinical specimens by multiplex PCR, J. Virol. Methods (1999) 80:69–75. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Larochelle R., Bielanski A., Muller P., Magar R., PCR detection and evidence of shedding of porcine circovirus type 2 in boar semen, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) 38:4629–4632. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Larochelle R., Magar R., D’Allaire S., Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from cases presenting various clinical conditions, Virus Res. (2002) 90:101–112. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mandrioli L., Sarli G., Panarese S., Baldoni S., Marcato P.S., Apoptosis and proliferative activity in lymph node reaction in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2004) 97:25–37. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mantovani A., Bonecchi R., Locati M., Tuning inflammation and immunity by chemokine sequestration: decoys and more, Nat. Rev. Immunol. (2006) 6:907–918. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McCullough K.C., Schaffner R., Natale V., Kim Y.B., Summerfield A., Phenotype of porcine monocytic cells: modulation of surface molecule expression upon monocyte differentiation into macrophages, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1997) 58:265–275. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McNally A.K., Anderson J.M., Interleukin-4 induces foreign body giant cells from human monocytes/macrophages, Differential lymphokine regulation of macrophage fusion leads to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells, Am. J. Pathol. (1995) 147:1487–1499. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Meerts P., Misinzo G., Nauwynck H.J., Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-gamma before and after treatment and by IFN-alpha after treatment, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2005) 25:684–693. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Most J., Spotl L., Mayr G., Gasser A., Sarti A., Dierich M.P., Formation of multinucleated giant cells in vitro is dependent on the stage of monocyte to macrophage maturation, Blood (1997) 89:662–671. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nielsen J., Vincent I.E., Botner A., Ladekaer-Mikkelsen A.S., Allan G., Summerfield A., McCullough K.C., Association of lymphopenia with porcine circovirus type 2 induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) 92:97–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Orenstein J.M., Wahl S.M., The macrophage origin of the HIV-expressing multinucleated giant cells in hyperplastic tonsils and adenoids, Ultrastruct. Pathol. (1999) 23:79–91. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rosell C., Segales J., Plana-Duran J., Balasch M., Rodriguez-Arrioja G.M., Kennedy S., et al., Pathological, immunohistochemical, and in-situ hybridization studies of natural cases of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs, J. Comp. Pathol. (1999) 120:59–78. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Ruibal-Ares B., Riera N.E., de Bracco M.M., Macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and apoptosis in HIV+ patients and normal blood donors, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1997) 82:102–116. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Ryabchikova E., Kolesnikova L., Smolina M., Tkachev V., Pereboeva L., Baranova S., et al., Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs: presumable role of granulomatous inflammation in pathogenesis, Arch. Virol. (1996) 141:909–921. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sarli G., Mandrioli L., Laurenti M., Sidoli L., Cerati C., Rolla G., Marcato P.S., Immunohistochemical characterisation of the lymph node reaction in pig post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) 83:53–67. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Segales J., Alonso F., Rosell C., Pastor J., Chianini F., Campos E., et al., Changes in peripheral blood leukocyte populations in pigs with natural postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) 81:37–44. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Seger R.A., Modern management of chronic granulomatous disease, Br. J. Haematol. (2008) 140:255–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Seitzer U., Haas H., Gerdes J., A human in vitro granuloma model for the investigation of multinucleated giant cell and granuloma formation, Histol. Histopathol. (2001) 16:645–653. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shibahara T., Sato K., Ishikawa Y., Kadota K., Porcine circovirus induces B lymphocyte depletion in pigs with wasting disease syndrome, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2000) 62:1125–1131. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wilflingseder D., Mullauer B., Schramek H., Banki Z., Pruenster M., Dierich M.P., Stoiber H., HIV-1-induced migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells is associated with differential activation of MAPK pathways, J. Immunol. (2004) 173:7497–7505. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Yoshihara K., Nagata R., Muneta Y., Inumaru S., Yokomizo Y., Mori Y., Generation of multinucleated giant cells in vitro from bovine monocytes and macrophages, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) 66:1065–1069. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]