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Table IV.

Confirmed or putative virulence factors of A. pleuropneumoniae involved in avoiding the host’s defense mechanism and the corresponding genes.

(Putative) virulence factor Gene Function Reference
Proteases NA* Degradation of porcine IgA and IgG [81, 82]
Apx toxins see Table III Cytolysis of neutrophils and macrophages, apoptosis of alveolar macrophages, impairment of macrophage chemotactic and phagocytotic function, intracellular survival [29, 34, 36, 42, 43, 110]
Urease ureABC, ureDEFG Intracellular survival, impairment of macrophage function, toxic for macrophages [20, 21]
Carbohydrates in capsule and lipopolysaccharides NA Intracellular survival [16]
Heat-shock protein dnaK Intracellular survival [53]
Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase sodC Intracellular survival [71, 104]
Capsular polysaccharide cpxDCBA Antiphagocytic, serum resistance [8, 11, 61, 66, 75, 9799, 113, 118120]
Regulator of the maltose regulon malT Serum resistance [75]

* Information not available.