Free Access
Vet. Res.
Volume 40, Number 2, March-April 2009
Adaptative strategies of vector-borne pathogens to vectorial transmission
Number of page(s) 42
Published online 16 April 2009
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2009) 40:36
References of  Vet. Res. (2009) 40:36
  1. Alitalo A., Meri T., Ramo L., Jokiranta T., Heikkila T., Seppala I., et al., Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: serum-resistant strains promote C3b inactivation, Infect. Immun. (2001) 69:3685–3691 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  2. Amore G., Tomassone L., Grego E., Ragagli C., Bertolotti L., Nebbia P., et al., Borrelia lusitaniae in immature Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on common wall lizards in Tuscany, central Italy, J. Med. Entomol. (2007) 44:303–307 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  3. Anderson J., Magnarelli L., Vertebrate host relationships and distribution of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, USA, J. Med. Entomol. (1980) 17:314–323 [PubMed].
  4. Anderson J., Johnson R., Magnarelli L., Hyde F., Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis), J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) 22:36–38 [PubMed].
  5. Anderson J., Magnarelli L., Biology of Ticks, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. (2008) 22:195–215 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  6. Anderson R., May R., Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions. I. Regulatory processes, J. Anim. Ecol. (1978) 47:219–247 [CrossRef].
  7. Anderson R., May R., Coevolution of hosts and parasites, Parasitology (1982) 85:411–426 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  8. Anderson R., May R., A framework for discussing the population biology of infectious diseases, in: Infectious diseases of humans – dynamics and control, Chapter 2, 1992, pp. 17–23.
  9. Anguita J., Ramamoorthi N., Hovius J., Das S., Thomas V., Persinski R., et al., Salp15, an Ixodes scapularis salivary protein, inhibits CD4(+) T cell activation, Immunity (2002) 16:849–859 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  10. Anguita J., Hedrick M., Fikrig E., Adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the tick and the mammalian host, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2003) 27:493–504 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  11. Bacon M., Kugeler K., Mead P., Surveillance for Lyme disease – United States, 1992–2006, MMWR (2008) 57(SS10):1–9.
  12. Balashov Y., Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodidae) vectors of diseases of man and animals, Misc. Pub. Entomol. Soc. Am. (1972) 8:163–376.
  13. Baranton G., Postic D., Saintgirons I., Boerlin P., Piffaretti C., Assous M., Grimont P., Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1992) 42:378–383 [PubMed].
  14. Barbour A., Fish D., The biological and social phenomenon of Lyme disease, Science (1993) 260:1610–1616 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  15. Barbour A., Maupin G., Teltow G., Carter C., Piesman J., Identification of an uncultivable Borrelia species in the hard tick Amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a Lyme disease-like illness, J. Infect. Dis. (1996) 173:403–409 [PubMed].
  16. Barthold S., Feng S., Bockenstedt L., Fikrig E., Feen K., Protective and arthritis-resolving activity in sera of mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, Clin. Infect. Dis. (1997) 25:S9–S17 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  17. Barthold S., Hodzic E., Tunev S., Feng S., Antibody-mediated disease remission in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis, Infect. Immun. (2006) 74:4817–4825 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  18. Bell J., Stewart S., Wikel S., Resistance to tickborne Francisella tularensis by tick-sensitized rabbits: allergic klendusity, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1970) 28:876–880.
  19. Belozerov V., Diapause and biological rhythms in ticks, in: Obenchain F., Galun R. (Eds.), Physiology of ticks, Pergamon Press, 1982, pp. 469–500.
  20. Benson M., Gawronski J., Eveleigh D., Benson D., Intracellular symbionts and other bacteria associated with deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) from Nantucket and Wellfleet, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) 70:616–620 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  21. Billeter S., Blanton H., Little S., Levy M., Breitschwerdt E., Detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in association with a tick bite rash, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2007) 7:607–610 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  22. Billeter S., Levy M., Chomel B., Breitschwerdt E., Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2008) 22:1–15 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  23. Bishopp F., Trembley H., Distribution and hosts of certain North American ticks, J. Parasitol. (1945) 31:1–53 [CrossRef].
  24. Bockenstedt L., Hodzic E., Feng S., Bourrel K., Desilva A., Montgomery R., et al., Borrelia burgdorferi strain-specific OspC-mediated immunity in mice, Infect. Immun. (1997) 65:4661–4667 [PubMed].
  25. Bockenstedt L., Mao J., Hodzic E., Barthold S., Fish D., Detection of attenuated, noninfectious spirochetes in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice after antibiotic treatment, J. Infect. Dis. (2002) 186:1430–1437 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  26. Boyard C., Vourc'h G., Barnounin J., The relationships between Ixodes ricinus and small mammal species at the woodland-pasture interface, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2008) 44:61–76 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  27. Brisson D., Dykhuizen D., ospC diversity in Borrelia burgdorferi: different hosts are different niches, Genetics (2004) 168:713–722 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  28. Brisson D., Dykhuizen D., A modest model explains the distribution and abundance of Borrelia burgdorferi strains, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2006) 74:615–622 [PubMed].
  29. Brossard M., Wikel S., Tick immunobiology, Parasitology (2004) 129:S161–176 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  30. Brunet L., Katavolos P., Spielman A., Telford S., Anti-OspA antibody reduces reservoir competence of mice for Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, Med. Vet. Entomol. (1997) 11:198–200 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  31. Bunikis J., Barbour A., Third Borrelia species in white-footed mice, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2005) 11:1150–1151 [PubMed].
  32. Burkot T., Piesman J., Wirtz R., Quantitation of the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A in Ixodes scapularis: fluctuations during the tick life cycle, doubling times, and loss while feeding, J. Infect. Dis. (1994) 170:883–889 [PubMed].
  33. Cabello F., Godfrey H., Newman S., Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix, Trends Microbiol. (2007) 15:350–354 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  34. Canica M., Nato F., Dumerle L., Mazie J., Baranton G., Postic D., Monoclonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia afzelii sp. nov. associated with late cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) 24:441–448 [CrossRef].
  35. Carroll J., Schmidtmann E., Dispersal of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs and adults at the woods-pasture interface, J. Med. Entomol. (1996) 33:554–558 [PubMed].
  36. Carroll J., Allen P., Hill D., Pound J.M., Miller J.A., George J.E., Control of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum through use of the `4-poster' treatment device on deer in Maryland, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2002) 28:289–296 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  37. Casjens S., Palmer N., Van Vugt R., Huang W., Stevenson B., Rosa P., et al., A bacterial genome in flux: the twelve linear and nine circular extrachromosomal DNAs in an infectious isolate of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Mol. Microbiol. (2000) 35:490–516 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  38. Charon N., Goldstein S., Genetics of motility and chemotaxis of a fascinating group of bacteria: The spirochetes, Annu. Rev. Genet. (2002) 36:47–73 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  39. Chen S., Dumler J., Bakken J., Walker D., Identification of granulocytotropic Ehrlichia species as the etiologic agent of human disease, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) 32:589–595 [PubMed].
  40. Childs J., Pre-spillover prevention of emerging zoonotic diseases: what are the targets and what are the tools? Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (2007) 389–443.
  41. Chu C., Liu W., Jiang B., Wang D., Jiang W., Zhao Q., et al., Novel genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from rodents and ticks in southwestern China, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2008) 46:3130–3133 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  42. Clark K., Oliver J., James A., Durden L., Banks C., Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection among rodents and host-seeking ticks in South Carolina, J. Med. Entomol. (2002) 39:198–206 [PubMed].
  43. Clark K., Hendricks A., Burge D., Molecular identification and analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards in the southeastern United States, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) 71:2616–2625 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  44. Clay K., Fuqua C., Lively C., Wade M., Microbial community ecology of tick-borne human pathogens, in: Collinge S., Ray C. (Eds.), Disease ecology – community structure and pathogen dynamics, Chapter 4, 2006, pp. 41–57.
  45. Cotte V., Bonnet S., Le Rhun D., Le Naour E., Chauvin A., Boulouis H., et al., Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2008) 14:1074–1080 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  46. Craine N., Nuttall P., Marriott A., Randolph S., Role of grey squirrels and pheasants in the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the Lyme disease spirochaete, in the UK, Folia Parasitol. (1997) 44:155–160 [PubMed].
  47. Cross M., Buddle B., Aldwell F., The potential of oral vaccines for disease control in wildlife species, Vet. J. (2007) 174:472–480 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  48. Davidar P., Wilson M., Ribeiro J., Differential distribution of immature Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on rodent hosts, J. Parasitol. (1989) 75:898–904 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  49. De Silva A., Telford S., Brunet L., Barthold S., Fikrig E., Borrelia burgdorferi OspA is an arthropodspecific transmission-blocking Lyme disease vaccine, J. Exp. Med. (1996) 183:271–275 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  50. De Silva A., Fikrig E., Arthropod- and hostspecific gene expression by Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Clin. Invest. (1997) 100:S3–S5 [PubMed].
  51. Derdakova M., Dudioak V., Brei B., Brownstein J., Schwartz I., Fish D., Interaction and transmission of two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in a tickrodent maintenance system, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) 70:6783–6788 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  52. Desilva A., Fikrig E., Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in ticks and mammals, Parasitol. Today (1997) 13:267–270 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  53. Diuk-Wasser M., Gatewood A., Cortinas M., Yaremych-Hamer S., Tsao J., Kitron U., et al., Spatiotemporal patterns of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States, J. Med. Entomol. (2006) 43:166–176 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  54. Dizij A., Kurtenbach K., Clethrionomys glareolus, but not Apodemus flavicollis, acquires resistance to Ixodes ricinus L. the main European vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, Parasite Immunol. (1995) 17:177–183 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  55. Dolan M., Piesman J., Schneider B., Schriefer M., Brandt K., Zeidner N., Comparison of disseminated and nondisseminated strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in mice naturally infected by tick bite, Infect. Immun. (2004) 72:5262–5266 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  56. Dolan M.C., Maupin G.O., Schneider B.S., Denatale C., Hamon N., Cole C., et al., Control of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on rodent reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi in a residential community of southeastern Connecticut, J. Med. Entomol. (2004) 41:1043–1054 [PubMed].
  57. Donahue J., Piesman J., Spielman A., Reservoir competence of white-footed mice for Lyme disease spirochetes, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1987) 36:92–96 [PubMed].
  58. Eisen L., Eisen R., Lane R., Seasonal activity patterns of Ixodes pacificus nymphs in relation to climatic conditions, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2002) 16:235–244 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  59. Eisen L., Lane R., Vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in: Gray J., Kahl O., Lane R., Stanek G. (Eds.), Lyme borreliosis biology, epidemiology and control, Cabi Publishing, 2002, pp. 91–115.
  60. Eisen R., Mun J., Eisen L., Lane R., Life stagerelated differences in density of questing ticks and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within a single cohort of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2004) 41:768–773 [PubMed].
  61. Falco R., Fish D., Horizontal movement of adult Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) attracted to CO2- baited traps, J. Med. Entomol. (1991) 28:726–729 [PubMed].
  62. Feder H., Johnson B., O'connell S., Shapiro E., Steere A., Wormser G., Current concepts – A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease”, N. Engl. J. Med. (2007) 357:1422–1430 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  63. Fikrig E., Pal U., Chen M., Anderson J., Flavell R., OspB antibody prevents Borrelia burgdorferi colonization of Ixodes scapularis, Infect. Immun. (2004) 72:1755–1759 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  64. Fikrig E., Narasimhan S., Borrelia burgdorferi – Traveling incognito? Microbe Infect. (2006) 8:1390–1399.
  65. Filippova N., Taxonomic aspects of the Lyme disease agent vector, Parassitologia (1990) 24:257–267 (in Russian).
  66. Fish D., Population ecology of Ixodes dammini, in: Ginsberg H.S. (Ed.), Ecology and environment management of Lyme disease, Rutgers University Press, 1993, pp. 25–42.
  67. Foretz M., Postic D., Baranton G., Phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by arbitrarily primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:11–18 [PubMed].
  68. Fournier P., Allombert C., Supputamongkol Y., Caruso G., Brouqui P., Raoult D., An eruptive fever associated with antibodies to Rickettsia helvetica in Europe and Thailand, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) 42:816–818 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  69. Francischetti I., Valenzuela J., Andersen J., Mather T., Ribeiro J., Ixolaris, a novel recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) from the salivary gland of the tick, Ixodes scapularis: Identification of factor X and factor Xa as scaffolds for the inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor complex, Blood (2002) 99:3602–3612 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  70. Francischetti I., Mather T., Ribeiro J., Cloning of a salivary gland metalloprotease and characterization of gelatinase and fibrin(ogen)lytic activities in the saliva of the Lyme disease tick vector Ixodes scapularis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) 305:869–875 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  71. Francischetti I., Mather T.N., Ribeiro J.M., Penthalaris, a novel recombinant five-Kunitz tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) from the salivary gland of the tick vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes scapularis, Thromb. Haemost. (2004) 91:886–898 [PubMed].
  72. Francischetti I., Pham V., Mans B., Andersen J., Mather T.N., Lane R., Ribeiro J., The transcriptome of the salivary glands of the female western blacklegged tick Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) 35:1142–1161 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  73. Fraser C., Casjens S., Huang W., Sutton G., Clayton R., Lathigra R., et al., Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, Nature (1997) 390:580–586 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  74. Fukunaga M., Hamase A., Okada K., Nakao M., Borrelia tanukii sp. nov. and Borrelia turdae sp. nov. found from ixodid ticks in Japan: rapid species identification by 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR analysis, Microbiol. Immunol. (1996) 40:877–881 [PubMed].
  75. Garg R., Juncadella I.J., Ramamoorthi N.A., Ananthanarayanan S.K., Thomas V., Rincon M., et al., Cutting edge: CD4 is the receptor for the tick saliva immunosuppressor, Salp15, J. Immunol. (2006) 177:6579–6583 [PubMed].
  76. Gatewood A., Liebman K., Vourc'h G., Bunikis J., Hamer S., Cortinas M., et al., Climate and tick seasonality predict Borrelia burgdorferi genotype distribution, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2009) 75:2476–2483 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  77. Georgilis K., Peacocke M., Klempner M., Fibroblasts protect the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from ceftriaxone in vitro, J. Infect. Dis. (1992) 166:440–444 [PubMed].
  78. Gern L., Siegenthaler M., Hu C., Leubagarcia S., Humair P., Moret J., Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents (Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus) – duration and enhancement of infectivity for Ixodes ricinus ticks, Eur. J. Epidemiol. (1994) 10:75–80 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  79. Gern L., Estrada-Pena A., Frandsen F., Gray J.S., Jaenson T., Jongejan F., Kahl O., et al., European reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. (1998) 287:196–204 [PubMed].
  80. Gillespie R., Dolan M., Piesman J., Titus R., Identification of an IL-2 binding protein in the saliva of the Lyme disease vector tick, Ixodes scapularis, J. Immunol. (2001) 166:4319–4326 [PubMed].
  81. Ginsberg H., Buckley P., Balmforth M., Zhioua E., Mitra S., Buckley F., Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Med. Entomol. (2005) 42:445–449 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  82. Ginsberg H., Potential effects of mixed infections in ticks on transmission dynamics of pathogens: comparative anlaysis of published records, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2008) 46:29–41 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  83. Ginsberg H.S., Ewing C., O'connell A., Bosler E., Daley J., Sayre M., Increased population densities of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Long Island, New York, J. Parasitol. (1991) 77:493–495 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  84. Glockner G., Lehmann R., Romualdi A., Pradella S., Schulte-Spechtel U., Schilhabel M., et al., Comparative analysis of the Borrelia garinii genome, Nucleic Acids Res. (2004) 32:6038–6046 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  85. Glockner G., Schulte-Spechtel U., Schilhabel M., Felder M., Suehnel J., Wilske B., Platzer M., Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity, BMC Genomics (2006) 7:6038–6044.
  86. Goddard J., Sumner J., Nicholson W., Paddock C., Shen J., Piesman J., Survey of ticks collected in Mississippi for Rickettsia. Ehrlichia, and Borrelia species, J. Vector Ecol. (2003) 28:184–189 [PubMed].
  87. Gould L., Nelson R., Griffith K., Hayes E., Piesman J., Mead P., Cartter M., Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding Lyme disease prevention among Connecticut residents, 1999–2004, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2008) 8:769–776 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  88. Grab D.J., Salim M., Chesney J., Bucala R., Lanners H.N., A role for peripheral blood fibrocytes in Lyme disease? Med. Hypotheses (2002) 59:1–10.
  89. Gray J., A carbon dioxide trap for prolonged sampling of Ixodes ricinus L. populations, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (1985) 1:35–44 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  90. Gray J., The development and seasonal activity of the tick Ixodes ricinus: a vector of Lyme borreliosis, Rev. Med. Vet. Entomol. (1991) 79:323–333.
  91. Gray J., The ecology of ticks transmitting Lyme borreliosis, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (1998) 22:249–258 [CrossRef].
  92. Grimm D., Tilly K., Byram R., Stewart P., Krum J., Bueschel D., et al., Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: A protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:3142–3147 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  93. Gritsun T., Lashkevich V., Gould E., Tick-borne encephalitis, Antiviral Res. (2003) 57:129–146 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  94. Hamer S., Tsao J., Walker E., Mansfield L., Foster E., Hickling G., Canines as sentinels for invading Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi in lower Michigan, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2009) 70:49–56.
  95. Hanincova K., Schafer S., Etti S., Sewell H., Taragelova V., Ziak D., et al., Association of Borrelia afzelii with rodents in Europe, Parasitology (2003) 126:1–11 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  96. Hanincova K., Taragelova V., Koci J., Schafer S., Hails R., Ullmann A., et al., Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with songbirds in Slovakia, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) 69:2825–2830 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  97. Hanincova K., Kurtenbach K., Diuk-Wasser M., Brei B., Fish D., Epidemic spread of Lyme borreliosis, northeastern United States, Emerg. Infect. Dis (2006) 12:604–611 [PubMed].
  98. Hanincova K., Ogden N.H., Diuk-Wasser M., Pappas C.J., Iyer R., Fish D., et al., Fitness variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in mice, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2008) 74:153–157 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  99. Hartemink N.A., Randolph S.E., Davis S.A., Heesterbeek J.A.P., The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: Defining R0 for tick-borne infections, Am. Nat. (2008) 171:743–754 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  100. Hellwage J., Meri T., Heikkila T., Alitalo A., Panelius J., Lahdenne P., et al., The complement regulator factor H binds to the surface protein OspE of Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 276:8427–8435 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  101. Hodzic E., Feng S., Freet K., Barthold S., Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice, Infect. Immun. (2003) 71:5042–5055 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  102. Hodzic E., Feng S., Holden K., Freet K., Barthold S., Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2008) 52:1728–1736 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  103. Hojgaard A., Eisen R., Piesman J., Transmission dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. during the key third day of feeding by nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2008) 45:732–736 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  104. Hovius J.W.R., Van Dam A.P., Fikrig E., Tickhost- pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis, Trends Parasitol. (2007) 23:434–438 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  105. Hovius J.W.R., De Jong M.A.W.P., Den Dunnen J., Litjens M., Fikrig E., Van Der Poll T., et al., Salp15 binding to DC-SIGN inhibits cytokine expression by impairing both nucleosome remodeling and mRNA stabilization, PLoS Pathog. (2008) 4:e31.
  106. Howe T., Laquier F., Barbour A., Organization of genes encoding 2 outer-membrane proteins of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi within a single transcriptional unit, Infect. Immun. (1986) 54:207–212 [PubMed].
  107. Humair P., Gern L., Relationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and Ixodes ricinus in enzootic areas in Switzerland, Acta Trop. (1998) 69:213–227 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  108. Hynes W., Ceraul S., Todd S., Seguin K., Sonenshine D., A defensin-like gene expressed in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2005) 19:339–344 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  109. Iyer R., Hardham J., Wormser G., Schwartz I., Norris S., Conservation and heterogeneity of vlsE among human and tick Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi, Infect. Immun. (2000) 68:1714–1718 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  110. Johns R., Sonenshine D., Hynes W., Response of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) to hemocoelic inoculation of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochetales), J. Med. Entomol. (2000) 37:265–270 [PubMed].
  111. Johns R., Ohnishi J., Broadwater A., Sonenshine D., De Silva A., Hynes W., Contrasts in tick innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi challenge: immunotolerance in Ixodes scapularis versus immunocompetence in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2001) 38:99–107 [PubMed].
  112. Johns R., Sonenshine D., Hynes W., Identification of a defensin from the hemolymph of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) 31:857–865 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  113. Johnson R., Schmid G., Hyde F., Steigerwalt A., Brenner D., Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov. etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1984) 34:496–497.
  114. Kahl O., Janetzki-Mittmann C., Gray J., Jonas R., Stein J., De Boer R., Risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for a host in relation to the duration of nymphal Ixodes ricinus feeding and the method of tick removal, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. (1998) 287:41–52 [PubMed].
  115. Kahl O., Gern L., Eisen L., Lane R., Ecological research on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: terminology and some methodological pitfalls, in: Gray J., Kahl O., Lane R., Stanek G. (Eds.), Lyme borreliosis, Cabi Publishing, 2002, pp. 29–46.
  116. Keesing F., Holt R., Ostfeld R., Effects of species diversity on disease risk, Ecol. Lett. (2006) 2006:4.
  117. Keirans J., Hutcheson H., Durden L., Klompen J., Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae): Redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation, and medical and veterinary importance, J. Med. Entomol. (1996) 33:297–318 [PubMed].
  118. Kraiczy P., Skerka C., Brade V., Zipfel P., Further characterization of complement regulatoracquiring surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, Infect. Immun. (2001) 2001:12.
  119. Kraiczy P., Skerka C., Kirschfink M., Brade V., Zipfel P., Immune evasion of Borrelia burgdorferi by acquisition of human complement regulators FHL-1/reconectin and Factor H, Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) 31:1674–1684 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  120. Kurtenbach K., Kampen H., Dizij A., Arndt S., Seitz H., Schaible U., Simon M., Infestation of rodents with larval Ixodes ricinus (Araci: Ixodidae) is an important factor in the transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sl in German woodlands, J. Med. Entomol. (1995) 32:807–817 [PubMed].
  121. Kurtenbach K., Carey D., Hoodless A., Nuttall P., Randolph S., Competence of pheasants as reservoirs for Lyme disease spirochetes, J. Med. Entomol. (1998) 35:77–81 [PubMed].
  122. Kurtenbach K., Sewell H., Ogden N., Randolph S., Nuttall P., Serum complement sensitivity as a key factor in Lyme disease ecology, Infect. Immun. (1998) 66:1248–1251 [PubMed].
  123. Kurtenbach K., De Michelis S., Etti S., Schafer S., Sewell H., Brade V., Kraiczy P., Host association of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato–the key role of host complement, Trends Microbiol. (2002) 10:74–79 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  124. Kurtenbach K., Schafer S., De Michelis S., Etti S., Sewell H., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the vertebrate host, in: Gray J., Kahl O., Lane R., Stanek G. (Eds.), Lyme borreliosis biology, epidemiology, and control, Cabi Publishing, 2002, pp. 117–148.
  125. Kurtenbach K., Hanincova K., Tsao J., Margos G., Fish D., Ogden N., Fundamental processes in the evolutionary ecology of Lyme borreliosis, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (2006) 4:660–669 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  126. Lane R., Seasonal activity of two human-biting ticks, Calif. Agric. (1990) 44:23–25.
  127. Lane R., Piesman J., Burgdorfer W., Lyme borreliosis: relation of its causative agent to its vectors and hosts in North America and Europe, Annu. Rev. Entomol. (1991) 36:587–609 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  128. Lane R., Quistad G., Borreliacidal factor in the blood of the western fence lizard (Sceloporous occidentalis), J. Parasitol. (1998) 84:29–34 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  129. Lane R., Mun J., Eisen R., Eisen L., Western gray squirrel (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a primary reservoir host of Borrelia burgdorferi in California oak woodlands? J. Med. Entomol. (2005) 42:388–396.
  130. Lawrie C., Randolph S.E., Nuttall P., Ixodes ticks: serum species sensitivity of anticomplement activity, Exp. Parasitol. (1999) 93:207–214 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  131. Le Fleche A., Postic D., Girardet K., Peter O., Baranton G., Characterization of Borrelia lusitaniae sp. nov. by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:921–925 [PubMed].
  132. Ledin K., Zeidner N., Ribeiro J., Biggerstaff B., Dolan M., Dietrich G., et al., Borreliacidal activity of saliva of the tick Amblyomma americanum, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2005) 19:90–95 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  133. Levin M., Levine J., Yang S., Howard P., Apperson C., Reservoir competence of the southeastern five-lined skink (Eumeces inexpectatus) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) for Borrelia burgdorferi, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) 54:92–97 [PubMed].
  134. Levin M., Papero M., Fish D., Feeding density influences acquisition of Borrelia burgdorferi in larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (1997) 34:569–572 [PubMed].
  135. Levin M., Des Vignes F., Fish D., Disparity in the natural cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1999) 5:204–208 [PubMed].
  136. Levin M., Fish D., Acquisition of coinfection and simultaneous transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis ticks, Infect. Immun. (2000) 68:2183–2186 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  137. Levins R., Evolution in changing environments, Princeton University Press, 1968.
  138. Li X., Neelakanta G., Liu X., Beck D.S., Kantor F.S., Fish D., et al., Role of outer surface protein D in the Borrelia burgdorferi life cycle, Infect. Immun. (2007) 75:4237–4244 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  139. Li X., Pal U., Ramamoorthi N., Liu X., Desrosiers D., Eggers C., et al., The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks, Mol. Microbiol. (2007) 63:694–710 [PubMed].
  140. Lindsay L., Barker I., Surgeoner G., Mcewen S., Campbell D., Duration of Borrelia burgdorferi infectivity in white-footed mice for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis under laboratory and field conditions in Ontario, J. Wildl. Dis. (1997) 33:766–775 [PubMed].
  141. Logiudice K., Ostfeld R., Schmidt K., Keesing F., The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2003) 2003:567–571 [CrossRef].
  142. Lux R., Moter A., Shi W., Chemotaxis in pathogenic spirochetes: directed movement toward targeting tissues? J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2000) 2:355–364.
  143. Ma J., Hine P., Clough E., Fish D., Coughlin R., Beltz G., Shew M., Safety, efficacy, and immunogenecity of a recombinant Osp subunit canine Lyme disease vaccine, Vaccine (1996) 14:1366–1374 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  144. Ma Y., Sturrock A., Weis J., Intracellular localisation of Borrelia burgdorferi within human endothelial cell, Infect. Immun. (1991) 59:671–678 [PubMed].
  145. Macaluso K., Sonenshine D.E., Ceraul S., Azad A., Rickettsial infection in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) inhibits transovarial transmission of a second Rickettsia, J. Med. Entomol. (2002) 39:809–813 [PubMed].
  146. Madhav N., Brownstein J., Tsao J., Fish D., A dispersal model for the range expansion of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2004) 41:842–852 [PubMed].
  147. Majlathova V., Majlath I., Derdakova M., Bronislava V., Pet'ko B., Borrelia lusitaniea and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2006) 12:1895–1901 [PubMed].
  148. Marconi R., Samuels D., Garon C., Transcriptional analyses and mapping of the OspC gene in Lyme disease spirochetes, J. Bacteriol. (1993) 175:926–932 [PubMed].
  149. Marconi R., Liveris D., Schwartz I., Identification of novel insertion elements, restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, and discontinuous 23S rRNA in Lyme disease spirochetes: phylogenetic analyses of rRNA genes and their intergenic spacers in Borrelia japonica sp. nov. and genomic group 21038 (Borrelia andersonii sp. nov.) isolates, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) 33:2427–2434 [PubMed].
  150. Margos G., Gatewood A.G., Aanensen D.M., Hanincova K., Terekhova D., Vollmer S.A., et al., MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2008) 105:8730–8735 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  151. Maritz-Olivier C., Stutzer C., Jongejan F., Neitz A., Gaspar A., Tick anti-hernostatics: targets for future vaccines and therapeutics, Trends Parasitol. (2007) 23:397–407 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  152. Masuzawa T., Takada N., Kudeken M., Fukui T., Yano Y., Ishiguro F., et al., Borrelia sinica sp. nov., a Lyme disease-related Borrelia species isolated in China, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:1817–1824 [PubMed].
  153. Mather M., Telford S., Maclachlan A., Spielman A., Incompetence of catbirds as reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete, J. Parasitol. (1989) 75:66–69 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  154. Mather T., Wilson M., Moore S., Ribeiro J., Spielman A., Comparing the relative potential of rodents as reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), Am. J. Epidemiol. (1989) 130:143–150 [PubMed].
  155. Mather T., Mather M., Intrinsic competence of 3 Ixodid ticks (Acari) as vectors of the Lyme disease spirochete, J. Med. Entomol. (1990) 27:646–650 [PubMed].
  156. Matuschka F., Fischer P., Musgrave K., Richter D., Spielman A., Hosts on which nymphal Ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1991) 44:100–107 [PubMed].
  157. Matuschka F., Heiler M., Eiffert H., Fischer P., Lotter H., Spielman A., Diversionary role of hoofed game in the transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1993) 48:693–699 [PubMed].
  158. Mccoy K., Boulinier T., Tirard C., Michalakis Y., Host specificity of a generalist parasite: genetic evidence of sympatric host races in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae, J. Evol. Biol. (2001) 14:395–405 [CrossRef].
  159. Mccoy K., Boulinier T., Tirard C., Michalakis Y., Host-dependent genetic structure of parasite populations: Differential dispersal of seabird tick host races, Evolution (2003) 57:288–296.
  160. Mcdowell J., Sung S., Hu L., Marconi R., Evidence that the variable regions of the central domain of VlsE are antigenic during infection with Lyme disease spirochetes, Infect. Immun. (2002) 70:4196–4203 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  161. Monteiro R., Rezaie A., Ribeiro J., Francischetti I., Ixolaris: a factor Xa heparin-binding exosite inhibitor, Biochem. J. (2005) 387:871–877 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  162. Montgomery R., Nathanson M., Malawista S., The fate of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent for Lyme disease, in mouse macrophages – destruction, survival, recovery, J. Immunol. (1993) 150:909–915 [PubMed].
  163. Moreno C., Moy F., Daniels T., Godfrey H., Cabello F., Molecular analysis of microbial communities identified in different developmental stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks from Westchester and Dutchess Counties, New York, Environ. Microbiol. (2006) 8:761–772 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  164. Moriarty T.J., Norman M.U., Colarusso P., Bankhead T., Kubes P., Chaconas G., Real-time high resolution 3D imaging of the lyme disease spirochete adhering to and escaping from the vasculature of a living host, PLoS Pathog. (2008) 4:e1000090.
  165. Motaleb M., Corum L., Bono J., Elias A., Rosa P., Samuels D., Charon N., Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2000) 97:10899–10904 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  166. Mukolwe S., Kocan A., Barker R., Kocan K., Murphy G., Attempted transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) (JD1 Strain) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma americanum, J. Med. Entomol. (1992) 29:673–677 [PubMed].
  167. Mun J., Eisen R., Eisen L., Lane R., Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California, J. Med. Entomol. (2006) 43:120–123 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  168. Myers P., Lundrigan B., Hoffman S., Haraminac A., Seto S., Climate-induced changes in the small mammal communities of the northern Great Lakes, Glob. Chang. Biol. (2009) in press.
  169. Narasimhan S., Santiago F., Koski R., Brei B., Anderson J., Fish D., Fikrig E., Examination of the Borrelia burgdorferi transcriptome in Ixodes scapularis during feeding, J. Bacteriol. (2002) 184:3122–3125 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  170. Narasimhan S., Montgomery R., Deponte K., Tschudi C., Marcantonio N., Anderson J., et al., Disruption of Ixodes scapularis anticoagulation by using RNA interference, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:1141–1146 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  171. Narasimhan S., Sukumaran B., Bozdogan U., Thomas V., Liang X., Deponte K., et al., A tick antioxidant facilitates the Lyme disease agent's successful migration from the mammalian host to the arthropod vector, Cell Host Microbe (2007) 2:7–18 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  172. Nazareth R., Tomaz L., Ortiz-Costa S., Atella G., Ribeiro J., Francischetti I., Monteiro R., Antithrombotic properties of ixolaris, a potent inhibitor of the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade, Thromb. Haemost. (2006) 96:7–13 [PubMed].
  173. Nazario S., Das S., De Silva A., Deponte K., Marcantonio N., Anderson J., et al., Prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in guinea pigs by tick immunity, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1998) 58:780–785 [PubMed].
  174. Neelakanta G., Li X., Pal U., Liu X., Beck D.S., Deponte K., et al., Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks, PLoS Pathog. (2007) 3:e33.
  175. Nordstrand A., Barbour A., Bergstrom S., Borrelia pathogenesis research in the post-genomic and post-vaccine era, Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (2000) 3:36–92.
  176. Norman R., Bowers R., Begon M., Hudson P., Persistence of tick-borne virus in the presence of multiple host species: tick reservoirs and parasite mediated competition, J. Theor. Biol. (1999) 200:111–118 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  177. Norris S., Carter C., Howell J., Barbour A., Low-passage associated proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 characterization and molecular cloning of OspD, a surface-exposed, plasmid-encoded lipoprotein, Infect. Immun. (1992) 60:4662–4672 [PubMed].
  178. Nosbisch L., Desilva A., Lack of detectable variation at Borrelia burgdorferi vlsE locus in ticks, J. Med. Entomol. (2007) 44:168–170 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  179. Nuttall P., Labuda M., Tick-host interactions: saliva-activated transmission, Parasitology (2004) 129:S177–S189 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  180. Ogden N., Nuttall P., Randolph S., Natural Lyme disease cycles maintained via sheep by cofeeding ticks, Parasitology (1997) 115:591–599 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  181. Ogden N., Bigras-Poulin M., O'callaghan C., Barker I., Kurtenbach K., Lindsay L., Charron D., Vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis, Parasitology (2006) 134:209–227 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  182. Ogden N., Maarouf A., Barker I., Bigras-Poulin M., Lindsay L., Morshed M., et al., Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada, Int. J. Parasitol. (2006) 36:63–70 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  183. Ogden N., Lindsay L., Hanincova K., Barker I., Bigras-Poulin M., Charron D., et al., Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2008) 74:1780–1790 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  184. Ogden N.H., Kurtenbach K., Nutall P., Interstadial and infestation level-dependent variation in the transmission efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi from mice to Ixodes ricinus ticks, Exp. Appl. Acarol. (1998) 22:367–372 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  185. Ogden N.H., Bigras-Poulin M., Hanincova K., Maarouf A., O'callaghan C.J., Kurtenbach K., Projected effects of climate change on tick phenology and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the North American tick Ixodes scapularis, J. Theor. Biol. (2008) 254:621–632 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  186. Ohnishi J., Piesman J., De Silva A., Antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi populations transmitted by ticks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2001) 98:670–675 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  187. Oliver J., Clark K., Chandler F., Tao L., James A., Banks C., et al., Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) 38:120–124 [PubMed].
  188. Olsen B., Jaenson T., Noppa L., Bunikis J., Bergstrom S., A Lyme borreliosis cycle in seabirds and Ixodes uriae ticks, Nature (1993) 362:340–342 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  189. Pachner A., Basta J., Delaney E., Hulinska D., Localisation of Borrelia burgdorferi in murine Lyme borreliosis by electron microscopy, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) 52:128–133 [PubMed].
  190. Pal U., De Silva A., Montgomery R., Fish D., Anguita J., Anderson J., et al., Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by outer surface protein A, J. Clin. Invest. (2000) 106:561–569 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  191. Pal U., Fikrig E., Adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the vector and vertebrate host, Microbes Infect. (2003) 5:659–666 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  192. Pal U., Li X., Wang T., Montgomery R., Ramamoorthi N., Desilva A., et al., TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi, Cell (2004) 119:457–468 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  193. Pal U., Yang X., Chen M., Bockenstedt L., Anderson J., Flavell R., et al., OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands, J. Clin. Invest. (2004) 113:220–230 [PubMed].
  194. Pal U., Dai J., Li X., Neelakanta G., Luo P., Kumar M., Wang P., et al., A differential role for BB0365 in the persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in mice and ticks, J. Infect. Dis. (2008) 197:148–155 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  195. Pal U., Wang P., Bao F., Yang X., Samanata S., Schoen R., et al., Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane proteins A and B participate in the genesis of Lyme arthritis, J. Exp. Med. (2008) 205:133–141 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  196. Parola P., Tick-borne rickettsial diseases: emerging risks in Europe, Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2004) 27:297–304 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  197. Patrican L., Acquisition of Lyme disease spirochetes by cofeeding Ixodes scapularis ticks, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) 57:589–593 [PubMed].
  198. Patrican L., Absence of Lyme disease spirochetes in larval progeny of naturally infected Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on dogs, J. Med. Entomol. (1997) 34:52–55 [PubMed].
  199. Piesman J., Spielman A., Human babesiosis on Nantucket Island: prevalence of Babesia microti in ticks, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1980) 29:742–746 [PubMed].
  200. Piesman J., Mather T., Sinsky R., Spielman A., Duration of tick attachment and Borrelia burdgorferi transmission, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) 25:557–558 [PubMed].
  201. Piesman J., Sinsky R., Ability of Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma americanum (Acari, Ixodidae) to acquire, maintain, and transmit Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi), J. Med. Entomol. (1988) 25:336–339 [PubMed].
  202. Piesman J., Oliver J., Sinsky R., Growth kinetics of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) in vector ticks (Ixodes dammini), Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1990) 42:352–357 [PubMed].
  203. Piesman J., Standard system for infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Med. Entomol. (1993) 30:199–203 [PubMed].
  204. Piesman J., Happ C., Ability of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to infect rodents and three species of human-biting ticks (blacklegged tick, American dog tick, lone star tick) (Acari: Ixodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (1997) 34:451–456 [PubMed].
  205. Piesman J., Happ C., The efficacy of co-feeding as a means of maintaining Borrelia burgdorferi: a North American model system, J. Vector Ecol. (2001) 26:216–220 [PubMed].
  206. Piesman J., Strategies for reducing Lyme borreliosis in North America, Int. J. Med. Microbiol. (2006) 296:(S1)17–22.
  207. Piesman J., Eisen L., Prevention of tick-borne diseases, Annu. Rev. Entomol. (2008) 53:323–343 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  208. Popov V., Korenberg E., Nefedova V., Han V., Wen J., Kovalevskii Y., et al., Ultrastructural evidence of the ehrlichial developmental cycle in naturally infected Ixodes persulcatus ticks in the course of coinfection with Rickettsia, Borrelia, and a flavivirus, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2007) 7:699–716 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  209. Postic D., Ras N., Lane R., Henderson M., Baranton G., Expanded diversity among California Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov (formerly Borrelia group DN127), J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) 36:3497–3504 [PubMed].
  210. Postic D., Garnier M., Baranton G., Multilocus sequence analysis of atypical Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species – description of Borrelia californensis sp nov., and genospecies 1 and 2, Int. J. Med. Microbiol. (2007) 297:263–271 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  211. Pound J.M., Miller J.A., George J.E., Lemeilleur C.A., The `4-poster' passive topical treatment device to apply acaricide for controlling ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on white-tailed deer, J. Med. Entomol. (2000) 37:588–594 [PubMed].
  212. Preac-Mursic V., Weber K., Pfister H., Wilske B., Gross B., Baumann A., Prokop J., Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis, Infection (1989) 17:355–359 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  213. Qiu W., Bosler E., Campbell J., Ugine G., Wang I., Luft B., Dykhuizen D., A population genetic study of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from eastern Long Island, New York, suggested frequency- dependent selection, gene flow and host adaptation, Hereditas (1997) 127:203–216 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  214. Qiu W.G., Bruno J.F., Mccaig W.D., Xu Y., Livey I., Schriefer M.E., Luft B.J., Wide distribution of a high-virulence Borrelia burgdorferi clone in Europe and North America, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2008) 14:1097–1104 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  215. Radolf J., Caimano M., The long strange trip of Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein C, Mol. Microbiol. (2008) 69:1–4 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  216. Ramamoorthi N., Narasimhan S., Pal U., Bao F., Yang X., Fish D., et al., The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host, Nature (2005) 436:573–577 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  217. Rand P.W., Lubelczyk C., Holman M.S., Lacombe E.H., Smith R., Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme disease, J. Med. Entomol. (2004) 41:779–784 [PubMed].
  218. Randolph S., Nuttall P., Nearly right or precisely wrong – natural versus laboratory studies of vector-borne diseases, Parasitol. Today (1994) 10:458–462 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  219. Randolph S., Craine N., General framework for comparative quantitative studies of transmission of tick-borne diseases using Lyme borreliosis in Europe as an example, J. Med. Entomol. (1995) 32:765–777 [PubMed].
  220. Randolph S., Gern L., Nuttall P., Co-feeding ticks: Epidemiological significance for tick-borne pathogen transmission, Parasitol. Today (1996) 12:472–479 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  221. Randolph S., Miklisova D., Lysy J., Rogers D., Labuda M., Incidence from coincidence: patterns of tick infestations on rodents facilitate transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus, Parasitology (1999) 118:177–186 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  222. Randolph S., Storey K., Impact of microclimate on immature tick-rodent host interactions (Acari: Ixodidae): implications for parasite transmission, J. Med. Entomol. (1999) 1999:741–748.
  223. Randolph S., Tick ecology: processes and patterns behind the epidemiological risk exposed by ixodid ticks as vectors, Parasitology (2004) 129:S37–S65 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  224. Randolph S.E., Steele G., An experimental evaluation of conventional control measures against the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus (L) (Acari: Ixodidae). 1. A unimodal seasonal activity pattern, Bull. Entomol. Res. (1985) 75:501–518 [CrossRef].
  225. Ras N., Postic D., Foretz M., Baranton G., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a bacterial species “Made in the USA”? Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:1112–1117.
  226. Ribeiro J., Makoul G., Levine J., Robinson D., Spielman A., Antihemostatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of the saliva of a tick, Ixodes dammini, J. Exp. Med. (1985) 161:332–344 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  227. Ribeiro J., Weis J., Telford S., Saliva of the tick Ixodes dammini inhibits neutrophil function, Exp. Parasitol. (1990) 70:382–388 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  228. Ribeiro J., Mather T., Ixodes scapularis: Salivary kininase activity is a metallo dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, Exp. Parasitol. (1998) 89:213–221 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  229. Ribeiro J., Francischetti I., Role of arthropod saliva in blood feeding: Sialome and post-sialome perspectives, Annu. Rev. Entomol. (2003) 48:73–88 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  230. Ribeiro J., Alarcon-Chaidez F., Francischetti I., Mans B., Mather T., Valenzuela J., Wikel S., An annotated catalog of salivary gland transcripts from Ixodes scapularis ticks, Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) 36:111–129 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  231. Richter D., Spielman A., Komar N., Matuschka F., Competence of American robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2000) 6:133–138 [PubMed].
  232. Richter D., Schlee D., Matuschka F., Relapsing fever-like spirochetes infecting European vector tick of Lyme disease agent, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2003) 9:697–701 [PubMed].
  233. Richter D., Klug B., Spielman A., Matuschka F., Adaptation of diverse Lyme disease spirochetes in a natural rodent reservoir host, Infect. Immun. (2004) 72:2442–2444 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  234. Richter D., Matuschka F.R., Perpetuation of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae by lizards, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) 72:4627–4632 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  235. Richter D., Postic D., Sertour N., Livey I., Matuschka F., Baranton G., Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species by multilocus sequence analysis and confirmation of the delineation of Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov., Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2006) 56:873–881 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  236. Rosa P., Tilly K., Stewart P., The burgeoning molecular genetics of the Lyme disease spirochaete, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (2005) 3:129–143 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  237. Rudenko N., Golovchenko M., Grubhoffer L., Oliver J.H. Jr., Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov. a new (14th) member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from the southeastern region of the United States, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2009) 47:134–141 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  238. Ryder J., Pinger R., Glancy T., Inability of Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Med. Entomol. (1992) 29:525–530 [PubMed].
  239. Sanders S.F., Oliver J., Evaluation of Ixodes scapularis, Amblyomma americanum, and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Georgia as vectors of a Florida strain of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Med. Entomol. (1995) 32:402–406 [PubMed].
  240. Schabereiter-Gurtner C., Lubitz W., Rolleke S., Application of broad-range 16S rRNA PCR amplification and DGGE fingerprinting for detection of tickinfecting bacteria, J. Microbiol. Methods (2003) 52:251–260 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  241. Schauber E., Gertz S., Maple W., Ostfeld R., Coinfection of blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Dutchess County, New York, with the agents of Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, J. Med. Entomol. (1998) 35:901–903 [PubMed].
  242. Scheckelhoff M.R., Telford S.R., Wesley M., Hu L.T., Borrelia burgdorferi intercepts host hormonal signals to regulate expression of outer surface protein A, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2007) 104:7247–7252 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  243. Schulze T.L., Bowen G., Bosler E., Lakat M., Parkin W., Altman R., et al., Amblyomma americanum – a potential vector of Lyme disease in New Jersey, Science (1984) 224:601–603 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  244. Schwan T., Burdorfer W., Garon C., Changes in infectivity and plasmid profile of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a result of in vitro cultivation, Infect. Immun. (1988) 56:1831–1836 [PubMed].
  245. Schwan T., Piesman J., Golde W., Dolan M., Rosa P., Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1995) 92:2909–2913 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  246. Schwan T., Piesman J., Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the Lyme diseaseassociated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) 38:382–388 [PubMed].
  247. Scoles G.A., Papero M., Beati L., Fish D., A relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2001) 1:21–34 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  248. Shaw D., Grenfell B., Dobson A., Patterns of macroparasite aggregation in wildlife host populations, Parasitology (1998) 117:597–610 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  249. Shi Y., Xu Q., Seemanapalli S.V., Mcshan K., Liang F.T., The dbpBA locus of Borrelia burgdorferi is not essential for infection of mice, Infect. Immun. (2006) 74:6509–6512 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  250. Shih C., Chao L., Yu C., Chemotactic migration of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to salivary gland extracts of vector ticks, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2002) 66:616–621 [PubMed].
  251. Singh S., Girschick H., Molecular survival strategies of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Lancet (2004) 4:575–583.
  252. Smith R., Bin Muzaffar S., Lavers J., Lacombe E., Cahill B., Lubelczyk C., et al., Borrelia garinii in seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic coast, North America, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2006) 12:1212–1909.
  253. Soares C., Zeidner N., Beard C., Dolan M., Dietrich G., Piesman J., Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in larvae of refractory and competent tick vectors, J. Med. Entomol. (2006) 43:61–67 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  254. Solberg V., Miller J.A., Hadfield T., Burge R., Schech J., Pound J.M., Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with topical self-application of permethrin by white-tailed deer inhabiting NASA, Beltsville, Maryland, J. Vector Ecol. (2003) 28:117–134 [PubMed].
  255. Sonenshine D.E., Biology of Ticks. Volume 1, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  256. Sonenshine D.E., The biology of tick vectors of human disease, in: Goodman L., Dennis D., Sonenshine D.E. (Eds.), Tick-borne diseases of humans, 2005, pp. 12–36.
  257. Sonenshine D.E., Hynes W.L., Molecular characterization and related aspects of the innate immune response in ticks, Front. Biosci. (2008) 13:7046–7063 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  258. Steere A., Coburn J., Glickstein L., The emergence of Lyme disease, J. Clin. Invest. (2004) 113:1093–1101 [PubMed].
  259. Steiner F., Pinger R., Vann C., Grindle N., Civitello D., Clay K., Fuqua C., Infection and coinfection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, J. Med. Entomol. (2008) 2008:2.
  260. Stevenson B., El-Hage N., Hines M., Miller J., Babb K., Differential binding of host complement inhibitor factor H by Borrelia burgdorferi Erp surface proteins: a possible mechanism underlying the expansive host range of Lyme disease spirochetes, Infect. Immun. (2002) 70:491–497 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  261. Stewart P., Byram R., Grimm D., Tilly K., Rosa P., The plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi: essential genetic elements of a pathogen, Plasmid (2005) 53:1–13 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  262. Stewart P., Wang X., Bueschel D., Clifton D., Grimm D., Tilly K., et al., Delineating the requirement for the Borrelia burgdorferi virulence factor OspC in the mammalian host, Infect. Immun. (2006) 74:3547–3553 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  263. Stewart P.E., Bestor A., Cullen J.N., Rosa P.A., A tightly regulated surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi is not essential to the mouse-tick infectious cycle, Infect. Immun. (2008) 76:1970–1978 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  264. Straubinger R., PCR-based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) 38:2191–2199 [PubMed].
  265. Straubinger R., Straubinger A., Summers B., Jacobson R., Status of Borrelia burgdorferi infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: An experimental study, J. Infect. Dis. (2000) 181:1069–1081 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  266. Swanson K.I., Norris D.E., Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in lizards from southern Maryland, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2007) 2007:42–49 [CrossRef].
  267. Swanson S.J., Neitzel D., Reed K.D., Belongia E.A., Coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2006) 19:708–727 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  268. Talleklint L., Jaenson T., Maintenance by hares of European Borrelia burgdorferi in ecosystems without rodents, J. Med. Entomol. (1993) 30:273–276 [PubMed].
  269. Telford S., Mather T., Moore S., Wilson M., Spielman A., Incompetence of deer as reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) 39:105–109 [PubMed].
  270. Telford S., Spielman A., Competence of a rabbit-feeding Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) as a vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, J. Med. Entomol. (1989) 26:118–121 [PubMed].
  271. Telford S., Mather T., Adler G., Spielman A., Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis, J. Parasitol. (1990) 76:681–683 [PubMed].
  272. Telford S., Armstrong P., Katavolos P., Foppa I., Garcia A., Wilson M., Spielman A., A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1997) 3:165–170 [PubMed].
  273. Teltow G., Fournier J., Rawlings J., Isolation of Borrelia burdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1991) 44:469–474 [PubMed].
  274. Terekhova D., Iyer R., Wormser G.P., Schwartz I., Comparative genome hybridization reveals substantial variation among clinical isolates of Borrelia burdorferi sensu stricto with different pathogenic properties, J. Bacteriol. (2006) 188:6124–6134 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  275. Tilly K., Krum J., Bestor A., JewettM., Grimm D., Bueschel D., et al., Borrelia burgdorferi OspC protein required exclusively in a crucial early stage of mammalian infection, Infect. Immun. (2006) 74:3554–3564 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  276. Tilly K., Rosa P.A., Stewart P.E., Biology of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. (2008) 22:217–234 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  277. Troughton D., Levin M., Life cycles of seven ixodid tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) under standardized laboratory conditions, J. Med. Entomol. (2007) 2007:732–740.
  278. Tsao J., Wootton J., Bunikis J., Luna M., Fish D., Barbour A., An ecological approach to preventing human infection: Vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:18159–18164 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  279. Tyson K., Elkins C., Patterson H., Fikrig E., De Silva A., Biochemical and functional characterization of Salp20, an Ixodes scapularis tick salivary protein that inhibits the complement pathway, Insect Mol. Biol. (2007) 16:469–479 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  280. Urioste S., Hall L., Telford S., Titus R., Saliva of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes dammini, blocks cell activation by a nonprostaglandin E(2)-dependent mechanism, J. Exp. Med. (1994) 180:1077–1085 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  281. Valenzuela J., Francischetti I., Pham V., Garfield M., Mather T., Ribeiro J., Exploring the sialome of the tick Ixodes scapularis, J. Exp. Biol. (2002) 205:2843–2864 [PubMed].
  282. Vourc'h G., Marmet J., Chassagne M., Bord S., Chapuis J., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2007) 7:637–641 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  283. Walker E., Smith T., Dewitt J., Beaudo D., Mclean R., Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in hostseeking ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Lyme disease endemic area in northern Michigan, J. Med. Entomol. (1994) 31:524–528 [PubMed].
  284. Wallich R., Pattathu J., Kitiratschky V., Brenner C., Zipfel P., Brade V., et al., Identification and functional characterization of complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of the Lyme disease spirochetes Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii, Infect. Immun. (2005) 73:2351–2359 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  285. Wang G., Van Dam A., Le Fleche A., Postic D., Peter O., Baranton G., et al., Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19), Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:926–932 [PubMed].
  286. Wang G., Ojaimi C., Iyer R., Saksenberg V., Mcclain S., Wormser G., Schwartz I., Impact of genotypic variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on kinetics of dissemination and severity of disease in C3H/HeJ mice, Infect. Immun. (2001) 69:4303–4312 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  287. Wang I., Dykhuizen D., Qin W., Dunn J., Bosler E., Luft B.J., Genetic diversity of OspC in a local population of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Genetics (1999) 151:15–30 [PubMed].
  288. Wikel S., Tick modulation of host cytokines, Exp. Parasitol. (1996) 84:304–309 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  289. Wikel S., Tick modulation of host immunity: an important factor in pathogen transmission, Int. J. Parasitol. (1999) 29:851–859 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  290. Willadsen P., Jongejan F., Immunology of the tick-host interaction and the control of ticks and tickborne diseases, Parasitol. Today (1999) 15:258–262 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  291. Wilson K., Bjornstad O., Dobson A., Merler S., Poglayen G., Randolph S.E., et al., Heterogeneities in macroparasite infections: patterns and processes, in: Hudson P., Rizzoli A., Grenfell B., Heesterbeek H., Dobson A. (Eds.), The ecology of wildlife diseases, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 6–44.
  292. Wilson M., Adler G., Spielman A., Correlation between abundance of deer and that of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. (1985) 78:172–176.
  293. Woolhouse M., Taylor L., Haydon D., Population biology of multihost pathogens, Science (2001) 292:1101–1112.
  294. Wormser G., Liveris D., Nowakowski J., Nadelman R., Cavaliere L., Mckenna D., et al., Association of specific subtypes of Borrelia burgdorferi with hematogenous dissemination in early Lyme disease, J. Infect. Dis. (1999) 180:720–725 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  295. Wormser G., Dattwyler R., Shapiro E., Halperin J., Steere A., Klempner M., et al., The clinical assessment, treatment, an prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic analplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clin. Infect. Dis. (2006) 43:1089–1134 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  296. Xu G., Fang Q., Keirans J., Durden L., Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Ixodes ricinus complex is a paraphyletic group, J. Parasitol. (2003) 89:452–457 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  297. Xu Q., Mcshan K., Liang F., Essential protective role attributed to the surface lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi against innate defences, Mol. Microbiol. (2008) 69:15–29 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  298. Xu Y., Kodner C., Coleman L., Johnson R., Correlation of plasmids with infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto type strain B31, Infect. Immun. (1996) 64:3870–3876 [PubMed].
  299. Yang X., Pal U., Alani S., Fikrig E., Norgard M., Essential role for OspA/B in the life cycle of the Lyme disease spirochete, J. Exp. Med. (2004) 199:641–648 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  300. Zeidner N., Dreitz M., Belasco D., Fish D., Suppression of acute Ixodes scapularis-induced Borrelia burgdorferi infection using tumor necrosis factoralpha, interleukin-2, and interferon-gamma, J. Infect. Dis. (1996) 173:187–195 [PubMed].
  301. Zhang J., Norris S., Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassettespecific, segmental gene conversion, Infect. Immun. (1998) 66:3698–3704 [PubMed].
  302. Zhang X., Meltzer M., Pena C., Hopkins A., Wroth L., Fix A., Economic impact of Lyme disease, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2006) 12:653–660 [PubMed].