Free Access
Vet. Res.
Volume 39, Number 4, July-August 2008
Prion diseases in animals
Number of page(s) 14
Published online 15 February 2008
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2008) 39:30
References of Vet. Res. 39 (2008) 301-14
  1. Acin C., Martin-Burriel I., Goldmann W., Lyahyai J., Monzon M., Bolea R., et al., Prion protein gene polymorphisms in healthy and scrapie-affected Spanish sheep, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:2103–2110.
  2. Acutis P.L., Sbaiz L., Verburg F., Riina M.V., Ru G., Moda G., et al., Low frequency of the scrapie resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:3165–3172.
  3. Acutis P.L., Bossers A., Priem J., Riina M.V., Peletto S., Mazza M., et al., Identification of prion protein gene polymorphisms in goats from Italian scrapie outbreaks, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:1029–1033.
  4. Alvarez L., Arranz J.J., San Primitivo F., Identification of a new leucine haplotype (ALQ) at codon 154 in the ovine protein gene in Spanish sheep, J. Anim. Sci. (2006) 84:259–265.
  5. Arsac J.N., Andréoletti O., Bilheude J.M., Lacroux C., Benestad S.L., Baron T., Similar biochemical signatures and prion protein genotypes in atypical scrapie and Nor98 cases, France and Norway, Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007) 1:58–65.
  6. Baylis M., Goldmann W., The genetics of scrapie in sheep and goats, Curr. Mol. Med. (2004) 4:385–396.
  7. Baylis M., Chihota C., Stevenson E., Goldmann W., Smith A., Sivam K., et al., Risk of scrapie in British sheep of different prion protein genotype, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:2735–2740.
  8. Belt P.B., Bossers A., Schreuder B.E., Smits M.A., PrP allelic variants associated with natural scrapie. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy; the BSE dilemma, Gibbs C.J. Jr. (Ed.), Springer, New York, USA, 1995, pp. 294–305.
  9. Benestad S.L., Sarradin P., Thu B., Schonheit J., Tranulis M.A., Bratberg B., Cases of scrapie with unusual features in Norway and designation of a new type, Nor98, Vet. Rec. (2003) 153:202–208.
  10. Benestad S.L., Arsac J.N., Goldmann W., Nöremark M., Atypical/Nor98 scrapie: properties of the agent, genetics, and epidemiology, Vet. Res. (2008) 39:19.
  11. Billinis C., Panagiotidis C.H., Psychas V., Argyroudis S., Nicolaou A., Leontides S., et al., Prion protein gene polymorphisms in natural goat scrapie, J. Gen. Virol. (2002) 83:713–721.
  12. Billinis C., Psychas V., Leontides L., Spyrou V., Argyroudis S., Vlemmas I., et al., Prion protein gene polymorphisms in healthy and scrapie-affected sheep in Greece, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:547–554.
  13. Bossers A., Schreuder B.E., Muileman I.H., Belt P.B., Smits M.A., PrP genotype contributes to determining survival times of sheep with natural scrapie, J. Gen. Virol. (1996) 77:2669–2673
  14. Bossers A., Harders F.L., Smits M.A., PrP genotype frequencies of the most dominant sheep breed in a country free from scrapie, Arch. Virol. (1999) 144:829–834.
  15. Brayton K.A., O'Rourke K.I., Lyda A.K., Miller M.W., Knowles D.P. Jr., A processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity, Gene (2004) 326:167–173.
  16. Büeler H., Aguzzi A., Sailer A., Greiner R.A., Autenried P., Aguet M., Weissmann C., Mice devoid of PrP are resistant to scrapie, Cell (1993) 73:1339–1347.
  17. Büeler H., Raeber A., Sailer A., Fischer M., Aguzzi A., Weissmann C., High prion and PrPSc levels but delayed onset of disease in scrapie-inoculated mice heterozygous for a disrupted PrP gene, Mol. Med. (1994) 1:19–30.
  18. Buschmann A., Luhken G., Schultz J., Erhardt G., Groschup M.H., Neuronal accumulation of abnormal prion protein in sheep carrying a scrapie-resistant genotype (PrPARR/ARR), J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:2727–2733.
  19. Dawson. M., Hoinville L.J., Hosie B.D., Hunter N., Guidance on the use of PrP genotyping as an aid to the control of clinical scrapie, Vet. Rec. (1998) 23:623–625.
  20. DeLima A.C., Bossers A., Souza C.E., Oliveira S.M., Oliveira D.M., PrP genotypes in a pedigree flock of Santa Ines sheep, Vet. Rec. (2007) 160:336–337.
  21. DeSilva U., Guo X., Kupfer D.M., Fernando S.C., Pillai A.T., Najar F.Z., et al., Allelic variants of ovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in Oklahoma sheep, Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2003) 102:89–94.
  22. Detweiler L.A., Baylis M., The epidemiology of scrapie, Rev. -Off. Int. Epizoot. (2003) 22:121–143.
  23. Drõgemüller C., Leeb T., Distl O., PrP genotype frequencies in German breeding sheep and teh potential to breed for resistance to scrapie, Vet. Rec. (2001) 149:349–352.
  24. Ekateriniadou L.V., Panagiotidis C.H., Terzis A., Ploumi K., Triantafyllidis C., Deligiannidis P. et al., Genotyping for PrP gene polymorphisms in rare Greek breeds of sheep, Vet. Rec. (2007) 160:194–195.
  25. Elsen J.M., Amigues Y., Schelcher F., Ducrocq V., Andréoletti O., Eychenne F., et al., Genetic susceptibility and transmission factors in scrapie: detailed analysis of an epidemic in a closed flock of Romanov, Arch. Virol. (1999) 144:431–445.
  26. Foster J., McKenzie C., Parnham D., Drummond D., Goldmann W., Stevenson E., Hunter N., Derivation of a scrapie-free sheep flock from the progeny of a flock affected by scrapie, Vet. Rec. (2006) 159: 42–45.
  27. Garcia-Crespo D., Oporto B., Gomez N., Nagore D., Benedicto L., Juste R.A., Hurtado A., PrP polymorphisms in Basque sheep breeds determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR, Vet. Rec. (2004) 154:717–722.
  28. Goldfarb L.G, Brown P., McCombie R., Goldgaber D., Swergold G.D., Wills P.R., et al., Transmissible familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with five, seven, and eight extra octapeptide coding repeats in the PRNP gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1991) 88:10926–10930.
  29. Goldmann W., Hunter N., Foster J., Salbaum M., Beyreuther K., Hope J., Two alleles of a neural protein gene linked to scrapie in sheep, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1990) 87:2476–2480.
  30. Goldmann W., Hunter N., Martin T., Dawson M., Hope J., Different forms of the bovine PrP gene have five or six copies of a short, GC-rich element within the protein – coding exon, J. Gen. Virol. (1991) 72:201–204.
  31. Goldmann W., Hunter N., Benson G., Foster J.D., Hope J., Different scrapie-associated fibril proteins (PrP) are encoded by lines of sheep selected for different alleles of the Sip gene, J. Gen. Virol. (1991) 72:2411–2417.
  32. Goldmann W., Martin T., Foster J., Hughes S., Smith G., Hughes K., et al., Novel polymorphisms in the caprine PrP gene: a codon 142 mutation associated with scrapie incubation period, J. Gen. Virol. (1996) 77:2885–2891.
  33. Goldmann W., Chong A., Foster J., Hope J., Hunter N., The shortest known prion protein gene allele occurs in goats, has only three octapeptide repeats and is non-pathogenic, J. Gen. Virol. (1998) 79:3173–3176.
  34. Goldmann W, O'Neill G., Cheung F., Charlson F., Ford P., Hunter N., PrP (prion) gene expression in sheep may be modulated by alternative polyadenylation of its messenger RNA, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:2275–2283.
  35. Goldmann W., Perucchini M., Smith A., Hunter N., Genetic variability of the PrP gene in a goat herd in the UK, Vet. Rec. (2004) 155:177–178.
  36. Goldmann W., Baylis M., Chihota C., Stevenson E., Hunter N., Frequencies of PrP gene haplotypes in British sheep flocks and the implications for breeding programmes, J. Appl. Microbiol. (2005) 98:1294–1302.
  37. Goldmann W., Houston F., Stewart P., Perucchini M., Foster J., Hunter N., Ovine prion protein variant A136R154L168Q171 increases resistance to experimental challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:3741–3745.
  38. Gombojav A., Ishiguro N., Horiuchi M., Shinagawa M., Unique amino acid polymorphisms of PrP genes in Mongolian Sheep breeds, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) 66:1293–1295.
  39. Groschup M.H., Lacroux C., Buschmann A., Lühken G., Mathey J., Eiden M., et al., Classic scrapie in sheep with ARR/ARR prion genotype in Germany and France, Emerging Infect. Dis. (2007) 13:1201–1207.
  40. Haigh C.L., Wright J.A., Brown D.R., Regulation of prion protein expression by noncoding regions of the Prnp gene, J. Mol. Biol. (2007) 368:915–927.
  41. Haase B., Doherr M., Seuberlich T., Drogemuller C., Dolf G., Nicken P., et al., PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle, BMC Genet. (2007) 8:15.
  42. Heaton M.P., Leymaster K.A., Freking B.A., Hawk D.A., Smith T.P., Keele J.W., et al., Prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of US sheep, beef cattle and deer, Mamm. Genome (2003) 14:765–777.
  43. Hills D., Schlaepfer J., Comincini S., MacLean I., Dolf G., Ferretti L., et al., Sequence variation in the bovine and ovine PRNP genes, Anim. Genet. (2003) 34: 183–190.
  44. Horiuchi M., Ishiguro N., Nagasawa H., Toyoda Y., Shinagawa M., Alternative usage of exon 1 of bovine PrP mRNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) 233:650–654.
  45. Horiuchi M., Ishiguro N., Nagasawa H., Toyoda Y., Shinagawa M., Genomic structure of the bovine PrP gene and complete nucleotide sequence of bovine PrP cDNA, Anim. Genet. (1998) 29:37–40.
  46. Houston F., Goldmann W., Chong A., Jeffrey M., González L., Foster J., et al., Prion diseases: BSE in sheep bred for resistance to infection, Nature (2003) 423:498.
  47. Hunter N., Goldmann W., Smith G., Hope J., Frequencies of PrP gene variants in healthy cattle and cattle affected by BSE in Scotland, Vet. Rec. (1994) 135:400–403.
  48. Hunter N., Cairns D., Foster J.D., Smith G., Goldmann W., Donnelly K., Is scrapie solely a genetic disease? Nature (1997) 386:137.
  49. Hunter N., Bossers A., The PrP genotype as a marker for scrapie susceptibility in sheep, in: Hörnlimann B., Riesner D, Kretzschmar H. (Eds.), Prions in humans and animals, de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 2006, pp.640–647.
  50. Huson H.J., Happ G. M., Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP ) in Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas), Anim. Genet. (2006) 37:425–426.
  51. Iannuzzi L., Palomba R., DiMeo G.P., Perucatti A., Ferrara L., Comparative FISH-mapping of the prion protein gene (PRNP) on cattle, river buffalo, sheep and goat chromosome, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1998) 81:202–204.
  52. Jeong B.H., Sohn H.J., Lee J.O., Kim N.H., Kim J.I., Lee S.Y., et al., Polymorphpisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Hanwoo (Bos Taurus coreanae) and Holstein cattle, Genes Genet. Syst. (2005) 80:303–306.
  53. Jewell J.E., Conner M.M., Wolfe L.L., Miller M.W., Williams E.S., Low frequency of PrP genotype 225SF among free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease, J. Gen. Virol. (2005) 86:2127–2134.
  54. Johnson C., Johnson J., Clayton M., McKenzie D., Aiken J., Prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of Wisconsin, J. Wildl. Dis. (2003) 39:576–581.
  55. Johnson C., Johnson J., Vanderloo J.P., Keane D., Aiken J.M., McKenzie D., Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:2109–2114.
  56. Juling K., Schwarzenbacher H., Williams J.L., Fries R., A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility, BMC Biol. (2006) 4:33.
  57. Kataoka N., Nishimura M., Horiuchi M., Ishiguro N., Surveillance of chronic wasting disease in sika deer, Cervus nippon, from Tokachi district in Hokkaido, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2005) 67:349–351.
  58. Kirkwood J.K., Wells G.A., Wilesmith J.W., Cunningham A.A., Jackson S.I., Spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Vet. Rec. (1990) 127:418–420.
  59. Kurosaki Y., Ishiguro N., Horiuchi M., Shinagawa, M., Polymorphisms of caprine PrP gene detected in Japan, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2005) 67:321–323.
  60. Kutzer T., Pfeiffer I., Brenig B., Identification of new allelic variants in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene, J. Anim. Breed. Genet. (2002) 119:201–208.
  61. Lan Z., Wang Z.L., Liu Y., Zhang X., Prion protein gene (PRNP) polymorphisms in Xinjiang local sheep breeds in China, Arch. Virol. (2006) 151:2095–2101.
  62. Laplanche J.L., Chatelain J., Westaway D., Thomas S., Dussaucy M., Brugere-Picoux J., Launay J.M., PrP polymorphisms associated with natural scrapie discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Genomics (1993) 15:30–37.
  63. Li Y.M., Tian B., Chinese little fat-tail sheep prion protein gene belongs to PrP ARH genotype, Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (2002) 34:62–66.
  64. Lühken G., Buschmann A., Brandt H., Eiden M., Groschup M.H., Erhardt G., Epidemiological and genetical differences between classical and atypical scrapie cases, Vet. Res. (2007) 38:65–80.
  65. Manolakou K., Beaton J., McConnell I., Farquhar C., Manson J., Hastie N., et al., Genetic and environmental factors modify bovine spongiform encephalopathy incubation period in mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2001) 98:7402–7407.
  66. Mead S., Prion disease genetics, Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) 14:273–281.
  67. Miller M.W., Conner M.M., Epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging mule deer: spatial, temporal, and demographic influences on observed prevalence patterns, J. Wildl. Dis. (2005) 41:275–290.
  68. Moum T., Olsaker I., Hopp P., Moldal T., Valheim M., Moum T., Benestad S.L., Polymorphisms at codons 141 and 154 in the ovine prion protein gene are associated with scrapie Nor98 cases, J. Gen. Virol. (2005) 86:231–235.
  69. O'Doherty E., Healy A., Aherne M., Hanrahan J.P., Weavers E., Doherty M., et al., Prion protein (PrP) gene polymorphisms associated with natural scrapie cases and their flock-mates in Ireland, Res. Vet. Sci. (2002) 73:243–250.
  70. O'Neill G.T., Donnelly K., Marshall E., Cairns D., Goldmann W., Hunter N., Characterisation of ovine PrP gene promoter activity in N2a neuroblastoma and ovine foetal brain cell lines, J. Anim. Breed. Genet. (2003) 120:1–10.
  71. O'Neill G.T, Cairns D., Toovey L., Goldmann W., Hunter N., New ovine PrP gene haplotypes as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PrP gene promoter, J. Anim. Breed. Genet. (2005) 122:86–94.
  72. O'Rourke K.I., Besser T.E., Miller M.W., Cline T.F., Spraker T.R., Jenny A.L., et al., PrP genotypes of captive and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:2765–2769.
  73. O'Rourke K.I., Spraker T.R., Hamburg L.K., Besser T.E., Brayton K.A., Knowles D.P., Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:1339–1346.
  74. Papasavva-Stylianou P., Kleanthous M., Toumazos P., Mavrikiou P., Loucaides P., Novel polymorphisms at codons 146 and 151 in the prion protein gene of Cyprus goats, and their association with natural scrapie, Vet. J. (2005) 173:459–462.
  75. Pattison I.H., Millson G.C., Distribution of the scrapie agent in the tissues of experimentally inoculated goats, J. Comp. Pathol. (1962) 72:233–244.
  76. Sander P., Hamann H., Pfeiffer I., Wemheuer W., Brenig B., Groschup M.H., et al., Analysis of sequence variability of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in German cattle breeds, Neurogenetics (2004) 5:19–25.
  77. Sander P., Hamann H., Drogemuller C., Kashkevich K., Schiebel K., Leeb T., Bovine prion protein (PRNP) promoter polymorphisms modulate PRNP expression and may be responsible for differences in BSE susceptibility, J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280:37408–37414.
  78. Saunders G.C., Cawthraw S., Mountjoy S.J., Hope J., Windl O., PrP genotypes of atypical scrapie in Great Britain, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:3141–3149.
  79. Schläpfer J., Saitbekova N., Gaillard C, Dolf G., A new allelic variant in the bovine prion protein gene, Anim. Genet. (1999) 30:386–387.
  80. Seabury C.M., Derr J.N., Identification of a novel ovine PrP polymorphism and scrapie resistant genotypes for St. Croix White and related composite breed, Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2003) 102:85–88.
  81. Seabury C.M., Honeycutt R.L., Rooney A.P., Halbert N.D., Derr J.N., Prion protein gene (PRNP) variants and evidence for strong purifying selection in functionally important regions of bovine exon 3, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:15142–15147.
  82. Sild E., Volskiene R., Viinalass H., Miceikiene I., Grislis Z., Distl O., Drögemüller C., Detection of prion protein gene polymorphisms in Baltic breeds of sheep, Vet. Rec. (2006) 159:247–250.
  83. Sipos W., Kraus M., Schmoll F., Achmann R., Baumgartner W., PrP genotyping of Austrian sheep breeds, J. Vet. Med. (2002) 49:415–418.
  84. Stephenson D.A., Chiotti K., Ebeling K., Groth D., DeArmond S.J., Prusiner S.B., Carlson G.A., Quantitative trait loci affecting prion incubation time in mice, Genomics (2000) 69:47–53.
  85. Takasuga A., Abe T., Ito T., Watanabe T., Kamatani N., Sugimoto Y., Novel prion protein polymorphisms in cattle, Anim. Genet. (2003) 34:396–397.
  86. Thorgeirsdottir S., Sigurdarson S., Thorisson H.M., Georgsson G., Palsdottir A., PrP gene polymorphism and natural scrapie in Icelandic sheep, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:2527–2534.
  87. Tkacikova L., Rolkova G., Bires J., Novak P., Kontsekova E., Imrichova D., et al., PrP gene polymorphism in sheep breeds in Slovakia and susceptibility to scrapie, Acta Virol. (2006) 50:257–261.
  88. Tranulis M.A., Osland A., Bratberg B., Ulvand M.J., Prion protein gene polymorphisms in sheep with natural scrapie and healthy controls in Norway, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:1073–1077.
  89. Tongue S.C., Pfeiffer D.U., Warner R., Elliot H., Del Rio Vilas V., Estimation of the relative risk of developing clinical scrapie: the role of prion protein (PrP) genotype and selection bias, Vet. Rec. (2006) 158:43–50.
  90. Townsend A.J., Warner R., Dawson M., PrP genotypes of rare breeds of sheep in Great Britain, Vet. Rec. (2005) 156:131–134.
  91. Vaccari G., Petraroli R., Agrimi U., Eleni C., Perfetti M.G., DiBari M.A., et al., PrP genotypes in Sarda breed sheep and its relevance for scrapie, Arch. Virol. (2001) 146:2029–2037.
  92. Vaccari G., DiBari M.A., Morelli L., Nonno R., Chiappini B., Antonucci G., et al., Identification of an allelic variant of the goat PrP gene associated with resistance to scrapie, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:1395–1402.
  93. Vaccari G., D'Agostino C., Nonno R., Rosone F., Conte M., Di Bari M.A., et al., Prion protein alleles showing a protective effects on the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, J. Virol. (2007) 81:7306–7309.
  94. Westaway D., Cooper C., Turner S., DaCosta M., Carlson G., Prusiner S.B., Structure and polymorphism of the mouse prion protein gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1994) 91:6418–6422.
  95. Zhang L., Li N., Fan B., Fang M., Xu W., PRNP polymorphisms in Chinese ovine, caprine and bovine breeds, Anim. Genet. (2004) 35:457–461.