Oral administration of NE, but not pre-culture with NE, alters the course of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. Panel A shows the impact of oral administration of c. 200 mg/kg NE or diluent to groups of 2 pigs 17 days post-inoculation with ST4/74 nalR. Values are the fold change in mean log10 CFU Salmonella/g relative to samples collected immediately prior to treatment. Panel B shows the magnitude of faecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium after oral dosing of groups of 3 pigs with c. 1 × 108 CFU ST4/74 nalR amplified in LB medium for 2 h in the presence of 5 mM NE or diluent. Values shown are the least square means (LSM) ± standard error (SE) of the LSM. p values ≤ 0.05 are marked with an asterisk.