Open Access
Vet. Res.
Volume 38, Number 1, January-February 2007
Page(s) 15 - 24
Published online 01 November 2006
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2007) 15-24
Vet. Res. 38 (2007) 15-24
DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2006041

New screening test to predict the potential impact of ivermectin-contaminated cattle dung on dung beetles

Jean-Pierre Lumareta, Michel Alvinerieb, Hella Hempelc, Hans-Joachim Schallnaßc, Daniel Clareta and Jörg Römbkec

a  UMR 5175 CEFE, Laboratoire de Zoogéographie, Université Montpellier 3 Paul Valéry, Route de Mende, 34199 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
b  Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, 31931 Toulouse Cedex, France
c  ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Flörsheim, Germany

(Received 10 November 2005; accepted 4 July 2006; published online 1 November 2006)

Abstract - According to European Union recommendations, a test method has been developed to evaluate the effects of veterinary pharmaceuticals on dung feeding insects. This test method was evaluated with the dung beetle Aphodius constans by using fecal residues of ivermectin after a pour-on administration. Dung of different age (and thus containing different concentrations of ivermectin) as well as mixtures of highly-contaminated spiked dung with untreated control dung were studied in five test runs in two laboratories. The concentration of ivermectin (active substance; a.s.) in the dung samples was verified analytically. The main test endpoint was the survival of first instar larvae. The LC50 using dung directly obtained from treated cattle ranged from 470 to 692 $\mu $g a.s. kg-1 dung (dry weight; d.w.) and 67 to 97 $\mu $g a.s. kg-1 dung (fresh weight; f.w.). Using mixtures, the outcome of two tests was almost identical: 770 to 781 $\mu $g a.s. kg-1 dung (d.w.); 109 to 132 $\mu $g a.s. kg-1 dung (f.w.). In comparison to the LC50 values obtained when ivermectin was spiked in control dung at several concentrations (LC50 880-985 $\mu $g a.s. kg-1 dung (d.w.)), the LC50 values were again very similar. Three conclusions can be drawn from these results. The proposed test method seems to be robust and allows for the initiation of an international validation process (including ringtesting). Because of only small differences found in tests in which the test substance was spiked into control dung and those in which dung from treated cattle was applied, the use of a standard test method is proposed. The effects of ivermectin on ecologically relevant dung beetles obtained in a standardised test method reflect the results from field studies and are in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations.

Key words: environmental risk assessment / ivermectin / dung beetle / treated dung / screening test

Corresponding author:

© INRA, EDP Sciences 2007