Free Access
Vet. Res.
Volume 36, Number 3, May-June 2005
Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonoses
Page(s) 507 - 522
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2005) 507-522
Vet. Res. 36 (2005) 507-522
DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2005008

Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonoses: factors of emergence, surveillance and control

Jean Blancoua, Bruno B. Chomelb, Albino Belottoc and François Xavier Meslind

a  Honorary Director General of the Office International des Epizooties, 11 rue Descombes, 75017 Paris, France
b  WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center on New and Emerging Zoonoses, Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
c  Veterinary Public Health Unit, Pan American Health Organization, 525 Twenty-third Street N.W., Washington, DC 20037, USA
d  Strategy Development and Monitoring of Zoonoses, Food-borne Diseases and Kinetoplastidae (ZFK), Communicable Diseases Control Prevention and Eradication (CPE), 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

(Received 21 September 2004; accepted 22 November 2004)

Abstract - Surveillance and control of emerging bacterial zoonoses is essential in order to prevent both human and animal deaths and to avoid potential economic disorders created by trade barriers or a ban on free circulation of human or animal populations. An increased risk of exposition to zoonotic agents, the breakdown of the host's defenses, the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics and their widespread distribution as well as conjunctural causes associated with the action or inaction of man have been identified as the main factors leading to the emergence or re-emergence of bacterial zoonoses. After an in-depth review of these various factors, the present manuscript reviews the main components of detection and surveillance of emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonoses. A description of the systems of control and the main obstacles to their success is also presented. Detection and surveillance of emerging zoonoses have greatly benefited from technical progress in diagnostics. The success of detection and control of emerging bacterial zoonoses is largely based on international solidarity and cooperation between countries.

Key words: emerging bacterial zoonoses / control / surveillance / factors of emergence

Corresponding author: Bruno B. Chomel

© INRA, EDP Sciences 2005