Is Q Fever an emerging or re-emerging zoonosis?Nathalie Arricau-Bouvery and Annie Rodolakis
Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, INRA, Centre de Tours-Nouzilly, 37380 Nouzilly, France
(Received 11 May 2004; accepted 13 December 2004)
Abstract - Q fever is a zoonotic disease considered as emerging or re-emerging in many countries. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium developing spore-like forms that are highly resistant to the environment. The most common animal reservoirs are livestock and the main source of infection is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Although the culture process for Coxiella is laborious, advances on the knowledge of the life cycle of the bacterium have been made. New tools have been developed to (i) improve the diagnosis of Q fever in humans and animals, and especially animal shedders, (ii) perform epidemiological studies, and (iii) prevent the disease through the use of vaccines. This review summarizes the state of the knowledge on the bacteriology and clinical manifestations of Q fever as well as its diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prevention in order to understand what factors are responsible for its emergence or re-emergence.
Key words: Coxiella burnetii / epidemiology / bacteriology / diagnostic / control
Corresponding author: Nathalie Arricau-Bouvery Nathalie.Bouvery@tours.inra.fr
© INRA, EDP Sciences 2005