Effect of RHDV infection on nuclear factor NF-κB and AP-1 activation. Upper panel: representative EMSA for NF-κB and AP-1. Specific binding was verified by addition of unlabeled oligonucleotide (competitor, −) or labeled oligonucleotide mutate (non-competitor, +). Lower panel: densitometric analysis. Values are means ± S.D. from 6 animals. *p < 0.05 significantly different from control animals.