Open Access

Table I.

Overview of the inactivation methods used to inactivate PRRSV.

Method Type Mechanism
Formaldehyde Alkylating agent Monohydroxy-methylizing of adenine [1]
Cross-linker Cross-linking of RNA to capsid proteins [20, 27, 32], causing a block of genome reading [49]
Cross-linking of proteins by formation of inter- and intramolecular methylene bridges between hydroxymethylated amines [22]
Glutaraldehyde Cross-linker Cross-linking of proteins by the same mechanism as formaldehyde described above [8]
AT-2 Cross-linker Cross-linking of proteins by oxidation of S-H groups causing formation of S-S bridges which results in a covalent modification and functional inactivation of S-H-containing internal viral proteins [7]
pH Denaturation agent Denaturation of proteins, the conformation of spike proteins of coronaviruses for example enables fusion of the virus with the host cell by changes to a pH of 8 [62]
Temperature Denaturation agent A high temperature denaturates proteins. As a result, the conformation of viral proteins that are involved in attachment and replication in a host cell may have changed [31, 56]
Gamma irradiation Radiation Viruses are inactivated primarily by direct damage, via disruption of the genome [24]
Formation of free radicals which damage proteins [24]
UV light Radiation Induction of dimer formation between adjacent uracils in RNA [40, 57]. Dimer formation leads to pressure and breakage of the sugar backbone causing a block of genome reading
More slowly, UV also causes structural modifications of the capsid proteins resulting in the formation of large and small photoproducts [40, 58]
BEI Alkylating agent Alkylation of RNA at low concentrations. Most likely genome reading is blocked by alkylation of guanine or adenine by BEI [4, 23]
Alkylation of proteins (nucleocapsid) at high concentrations [4]