Free access
Review
Issue
Vet. Res.
Volume 41, Number 6, November–December 2010
Emerging and re-emerging animal viruses
Number of page(s) 40
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2010033
Published online 31 May 2010
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2010) 41:61
  • Abu–Elyazeed R., El–Sharkawy S., Olson J., Botros B., Soliman A., Salib A., et al., Prevalence of anti–Rift–Valley–fever IgM antibody in abattoir workers in the Nile delta during the 1993 outbreak in Egypt, Bull. World Health Organ. (1996) 74:155–158. [PubMed]
  • Ackermann E., Dambos in Nordrhodesien, Wissenschaftliche Veröffenlichungen, Museum fur Landerkunde der Leipzig (1936) 4:147–157.
  • Albarino C.G., Bird B.H., Nichol S.T., A shared transcription termination signal on negative and ambisense RNA genome segments of Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and Toscana viruses, J. Virol. (2007) 81:5246–5256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anderson G.W. Jr, Slone T.W. Jr, PetersC.J., Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in inbred rats, Microb. Pathog. (1987) 2:283–293. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anderson G.W. Jr, Smith J.F., Immunoelectron microscopy of Rift Valley fever viral morphogenesis in primary rat hepatocytes, Virology (1987) 161:91–100. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anderson G.W. Jr, Peters C.J., Viral determinants of virulence for Rift Valley fever (RVF) in rats, Microb. Pathog. (1988) 5:241–250. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anderson G.W. Jr, Saluzzo J.F., Ksiazek T.G., SmithJ.F., Ennis W., Thureen D., et al., Comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems for propagation of Rift Valley fever virus from clinical specimens, Res. Virol. (1989) 140:129–138. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anderson G.W. Jr, Lee J.O., Anderson A.O., Powell N., Mangiafico J.A., Meadors G., Efficacy of a Rift Valley fever virus vaccine against an aerosol infection in rats, Vaccine (1991) 9:710–714. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Andrewes C.H., Horstmann D.M., The susceptibility of viruses to ethyl ether, J. Gen. Virol. (1949) 3:290–297.
  • Arishi H., Ageel A., Rahman M.A., Hazmi A.A., Arishi A.R., Ayoud Menon B., et al., Outbreak of Rift Valley fever-Saudi Arabia, August–October, 2000, MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep. (2000) 49:905–908. [PubMed]
  • Balkhy H.H., Memish Z.A., Rift Valley fever: An uninvited zoonosis in the Arabian peninsula, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2003) 21:153–157. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Barnard B.J., Botha M.J., An inactivated Rift Valley fever vaccine, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. (1977) 48:45–48. [PubMed]
  • Barnard B.J.H., Rift Valley fever vaccine–antibody and immune response in cattle to a live and an inactivated vaccine, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. (1979) 50:155–157. [PubMed]
  • Battles J.K., Dalrymple J.M., Genetic variation among geographic isolates of Rift Valley fever virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) 39:617–631. [PubMed]
  • Beaty B.J., Rozhon E.J., Gensemer P., Bishop D.H., Formation of reassortant bunyaviruses in dually infected mosquitoes, Virology (1981) 111:662–665. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Becker N., Life strategies of mosquitoes as an adaptation to their habitats, Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. (1989) 14:6–25.
  • Billecocq A., Gauliard N., Le May N., Elliott R.M., Flick R., Bouloy M., RNA polymerase I-mediated expression of viral RNA for the rescue of infectious virulent and avirulent Rift Valley fever viruses, Virology (2008) 378:377–384. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bird B.H., Baweic D.A., Ksiazek T.G., Shoemaker T.R., Nichol S.T., Highly sensitive and broadly reactive quantitative RT-PCR assay for high throughput detection of Rift Valley fever virus, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2007) 45:3506–3513. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bird B.H., Khristova M.L., Rollin P.E., Ksiazek T.G., Nichol S.T., Complete genome analysis of 33 ecologically and biologically diverse Rift Valley Fever virus strains reveals widespread virus movement and low genetic diversity due to recent common ancestry, J. Virol. (2007) 81:2805–2816. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bird B.H., Albarino C.G., Hartman A.L., Erickson B.R., Ksiazek T.G., Nichol S.T., Rift Valley fever virus lacking the NSs and NSm genes is highly attenuated, confers protective immunity from virulent virus challenge, and allows for differential identification of infected and vaccinated animals, J. Virol. (2008) 82:2681–2691. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bird B.H., Githinji J.W.K., Macharia J.M., Kasiiti J.L., Muriithi R.M., Gacheru S.G., et al., Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006–2007, J. Virol. (2008) 82:11152–11166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bird B.H., Ksiazek T.G., Nichol S.T., Maclachlan N.J., Rift Valley fever virus, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2009) 234:883–893. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Borucki M.K., Chandler L.J., Parker B.M., Blair C.D., Beaty B.J., Bunyavirus superinfection and segment reassortment in transovarially infected mosquitoes, J. Gen. Virol. (1999) 80:3173–3179. [PubMed]
  • Botros B., Omar A., Elian K., Mohamed G., Soliman A., Salib A., et al., Adverse response of non-indigenous cattle of European breeds to live attenuated Smithburn Rift Valley fever vaccine, J. Med. Virol. (2006) 78:787–791. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bouloy M., Dufour B., André-Fontaine G., Albina E., Chevalier V., Dorchies P., et al., REPORT: Risque de propagation de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift (FVR) dans l’Océan Indien (La Réunion et Mayotte), AFSSA, Maisons-Alfort, France, www.afssa.fr , 2008, pp. 1–124.
  • Bouloy M., Flick R., Reverse genetics technology for Rift Valley fever virus: Current and future applications for the development of therapeutics and vaccines, Antiviral Res. (2009) 84:101–118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Breiman R.F., Njenga M.K., Cleaveland S., Sharif S.K., Mbabu M., King L., Lessons from the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa: Implications for prevention of emerging infectious diseases, Future Virol. (2008) 3:411–417. [CrossRef]
  • Briese T., Bird B., Kapoor V., Nichol S.T., Lipkin W.I., Batai and Ngari viruses: M segment reassortment and association with severe febrile disease outbreaks in East Africa, J. Virol. (2006) 80:5627–5630. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Brown J.L., Dominik J.W., Morrissey R.L., Respiratory infectivity of a recently isolated Egyptian strain of Rift Valley fever virus, Infect. Immun. (1981) 33:848–853. [PubMed]
  • Caplen H., Peters C.J., Bishop D.H.L., Mutagen-directed attenuation of Rift Valley fever virus as a method for vaccine development, J. Gen. Virol. (1985) 66:2271–2277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Carroll S.A., Bird B.H., Rollin P.E., Nichol S.T., Ancient common ancestry of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2010) 55:1103–1110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Cetre–Sossah C., Billecocq A., Lancelot R., Defernez C., Favre J., Bouloy M., et al., Evaluation of a commercial competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in sera of domestic ruminants in France, Prev. Vet. Med. (2009) 90:146–149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chambers P.G., Swanepoel R., Rift Valley Fever in abattoir workers, Cent. Afr. J. Med. (1980) 26:122–126. [PubMed]
  • Chandler L.J., Hogge G., Endres M., Jacoby D.R., Nathanson N., Beaty B.J., Reassortment of La Crosse and Tahyna bunyaviruses in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes, Virus Res. (1991) 20:181–191. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chevalier V., De La Rocque S., Baldet T., Vial L., Roger F., Epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of vector-borne diseases: West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, OIE Rev. Sci. Tech. (2004) 23:535–555.
  • Chevalier V., Mondet B., Diaite A., Lancelot R., Fall A.G., Ponçon N., Exposure of sheep to mosquito bites: Possible consequences for the transmission risk of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2004) 18:247–255. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chevalier V., Pépin M., Plée L., Lancelot R., Rift Valley fever – A threat for Europe?, Eurosurveillance (2010) 15:pii-19506 (Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?Articled=19506).
  • Clements A.C., Pfeiffer D.U., Emerging viral zoonoses: frameworks for spatial and spatiotemporal risk assessment and resource planning, Vet. J. (2009) 182:21–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Clements A.C.A., Pfeiffer D.U., Martin V., Otte M.J., A Rift Valley fever atlas for Africa, Prev. Vet. Med. (2007) 82:72–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Clements A.C.A., Pfeiffer D.U., Martin V., Pittliglio C., Best N., Thiongane Y., Spatial risk assessment of Rift Valley fever in Senegal, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2007) 7:203–216. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Coackley W., Pini A., Gosden D., Experimental infection of cattle with pantropic Rift Valley fever virus, Res. Vet. Sci. (1967) 8:399–405. [PubMed]
  • Coetzer J.A., The pathology of Rift Valley fever. I. Lesions occurring in natural cases in new–born lambs, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1977) 44:205–211. [PubMed]
  • Coetzer J.A., The pathology of Rift Valley fever. II. Lesions occurring in field cases in adult cattle, calves and aborted foetuses, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1982) 49:11–17. [PubMed]
  • Coetzer J.A., Ishak K.G., Sequential development of the liver lesions in new-born lambs infected with Rift Valley fever virus. I. Macroscopic and microscopic pathology, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1982) 49:103–108. [PubMed]
  • Coetzer J.A., Ishak K.G., Calvert R.C., Sequential development of the liver lesions in new-born lambs infected with Rift Valley fever virus. II. Ultrastructural findings, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1982) 49:109–122. [PubMed]
  • Collett M.S., Purchio A.F., Keegan K., Frazier S., Hays W., Anderson D.K., et al., Complete nucleotide sequence of the M RNA segment of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology (1985) 144:228–245. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Collett M.S., Messenger RNA of the M segment RNA of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology (1986) 151:151–156. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Conzelmann K.K., Cox J.H., Thiel H.J., An L (polymerase)-deficient rabies virus defective interfering particle RNA is replicated and transcribed by heterologous helper virus L proteins, Virology (1991) 184:655–663. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Craig D.E., Thomas W.J., DeSanctis A.N., Stability of Rift Valley fever virus at 4 C, Appl. Microbiol. (1967) 15:446–447. [PubMed]
  • Dasgupta A., Targeting TFIIH to inhibit host cell transcription by Rift Valley fever virus, Mol. Cell (2004) 13:456–458. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Daubney R., Hudson J.R., Garnham P.C., Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever. An undescribed virus disease of sheep, cattle and man from East Africa, J. Pathol. Bacteriol. (1931) 34:545–579. [CrossRef]
  • Daubney R., Hudson J.R., Rift Valley fever, Lancet (1932) 1:611–612. [CrossRef]
  • Daubney R., Hudson J.R., Rift Valley fever, East Afr. Med. J. (1933) 10:2–19.
  • Davies F.G., Observations on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, J. Hyg. (1975) 75:219–230. [CrossRef]
  • Davies F.G., Highton R.B., Possible vectors of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1980) 74:815–816. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Davies F.G., Karstad L., Experimental infection of the African buffalo with the virus of Rift Valley fever, Trop. Anim. Health Prod. (1981) 13:185–188. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Davoust B., Marie J.L., Boni M., Prevention of zoonoses: creation of a unit for early detection of animal infections, Bull. Acad. Natl Méd. (2008) 192:541–554 (in French).
  • De Boer S.M., Kortekaas J., Antonis A.F., Kant J., van Oploo J.L., Rottier P.J., et al., Rift Valley fever virus subunit vaccines confer complete protection against a lethal virus challenge, Vaccine (2010) 28:2330–2339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Deyde V.M., Khristova M.L., Rollin P.E., Ksiazek T.G., Nichol S.T., Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genomics and global diversity, J. Virol. (2006) 80:8834–8842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Diallo B., Thonnon J., Traore-Lamizana M., Fontenille D., Vectors of chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) 60:281–286. [PubMed]
  • Diallo M., Lochouarn L., Ba K., Sall A.A., Mondo M., Girault L., Mathiot C., First isolation of the Rift Valley fever virus from Culex poicilipes (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2000) 62:702–704. [PubMed]
  • Diallo M., Nabeth P., Ba K., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Mondo M., et al., Mosquito vectors of the 1998–1999 outbreak of Rift Valley Fever and other arboviruses (Bagaza, Sanar, Wesselsbron and West Nile) in Mauritania and Senegal, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2005) 19:119–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Digoutte J.P., Cordellier R., Robin Y., Pajot F.X., Geoffroy B., Le virus zinga (Ar B 1976), nouveau prototype d’arbovirus isolé en République Centrafricaine, Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) (1974) 125B:107–118. [PubMed]
  • Dohm D.J., Rowton E.D., Lawyer P.G., O’Guinn M., Turell M.J., Laboratory transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti, and Sergentomyia schwetzi (Diptera: Psychodidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2000) 37:435–438. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Drake J.W., Holland J.J., Mutation rates among RNA viruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1999) 96:13910–13913. [CrossRef]
  • Drosten C., Göttig S., Schilling S., Asper M., Panning M., Schmitz H., Günther S., Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) 40:2323–2330. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Drummond A.J., Ho S.Y., Phillips M.J., Rambaut A., Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence, PLoS Biol. (2006) 4:e88. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Drummond A.J., Rambaut A., BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees, BMC Evol. Biol. (2007) 7:214. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Dufour B., Moutou F., Hattenberger A.M., Rodhain F., Global change: impact, management, risk approach and health measures – the case of Europe, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. (2008) 27:529–550.
  • Easterday B.C., McGavran M.H., Rooney J.R., Murphy L.C., The pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in lambs, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1962) 23:470–479. [PubMed]
  • Easterday B.C., Murphy L.C., Bennett D.G., Experimental Rift Valley fever in calves, goats and pigs, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1962) 23:1224–1230.
  • Easterday B.C., Murphy L.C., Bennett D.G., Experimental Rift Valley fever in lambs and sheep, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1962) 23:1231–1240.
  • Eddy G.A., Peters C.J., Meadors G., Cole F.E. Jr, Rift valley fever vaccine for humans, in: Swartz T.A., Klinberg M.A., Goldblum N., Papier C.M. (Eds.), Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics: Rift Valley fever, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1981, pp. 124–141.
  • Elliott R.M., Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae, J. Gen. Virol. (1990) 71:501–522. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Elliott R.M., The Bunyaviridae, Plenum Press, New York & London, 1996.
  • Elliott R.M., Weber F., Bunyaviruses and the type I interferon system, Viruses (2009) 1:1003–1021. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ellis D.S., Simpson D.I.H., Stamford S., Wahab K.S.E.A., Rift Valley fever virus: Some ultrastructural observations on material from the outbreak in Egypt 1977, J. Gen. Virol. (1979) 42:329–337. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Erasmus B.J., Coetzer J.A., The symptomatology and pathology of Rift Valley fever in domestic animals, in: Swartz T.A., Klinberg M.A., Goldblum N., Papier C.M. (Eds.), Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics: Rift Valley fever, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1981, pp. 77–82.
  • Fafetine J.M., Tijhaar E., Paweska J.T., Neves L.C.B.G., Hendriks J., Swanepoel R., et al., Cloning and expression of Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid (N) protein and evaluation of a N-protein based indirect ELISA for the detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in domestic ruminants, Vet. Microbiol. (2007) 121:29–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Fagbami A.H., Tomori O., Fabiyi A., Isoun T.T., Experimental Rift Valley fever in West African Dwarf sheep, Res. Vet. Sci. (1975) 18:334–335. [PubMed]
  • Faran M.E., Romoser W.S., Routier R.G., Bailey C.L., The distribution of Rift Valley fever virus in the mosquito Culex pipiens as revealed by viral titration of dissected organs and tissues, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) 39:206–213. [PubMed]
  • Filone C.M., Heise M., Doms R.W., Bertolotti–Ciarlet A., Development and characterization of a Rift Valley fever virus cell-cell fusion assay using alphavirus replicon vectors, Virology (2006) 356:155–164. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Findlay G.M., Rift Valley fever or enzootic hepatitis, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1932) 25:229–265. [CrossRef]
  • Flick R., Pettersson R.F., Reverse genetics system for Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae): RNA polymerase I-catalyzed expression of chimeric viral RNAs, J. Virol. (2001) 75:1643–1655. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Flick R., Bouloy M., Rift Valley fever virus, Curr. Mol. Med. (2005) 5:827–834. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Fontenille D., Traore-Lamizana M., Trouillet J., Leclerc A., Mondo M., Ba Y., et al., First isolations of arboviruses from phlebotomine sand flies in West Africa, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) 50:570–574. [PubMed]
  • Fontenille D., Traore-Lamizana M., Zeller H., Mondo M., Diallo M., Digoutte J.P., Short report: Rift Valley fever in Western Africa: Isolations from Aedes mosquitoes during an interepizootic period, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) 52:403–404. [PubMed]
  • Fontenille D., Traore-Lamizana M., Diallo M., Thonnon J., Digoutte J.P., Zeller H.G., New vectors of Rift Valley fever in West Africa, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1998) 4:289–293. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Freiberg A.N., Sherman M.B., Morais M.C., Holbrook M.R., Watowich S.J., Three-dimensional organization of Rift Valley fever virus revealed by cryoelectron tomography, J. Virol. (2008) 82:10341–10348. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gad A.M., Hassan M.M., el Said S., Moussa M.I., Wood O.L., Rift Valley fever virus transmission by different Egyptian mosquito species, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1987) 81:694–698. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gale P., Brouwer A., Ramnial V., Kelly L., Kosmider R., Fooks A.R., Snary E.L., Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion, Epidemiol. Infect. (2010) 138:214–225. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Garcia S., Crance J.M., Billecocq A., Peinnequin A., Jouan A., Bouloy M., Garin D., Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Rift Valley fever virus and its application to evaluation of antiviral compounds, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) 39:4456–4461. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gargan T.P. II, Bailey C.L., Higbee G.A., The effect of laboratory colonization on the vector-pathogen interactions of Egyptian Culex pipiens and Rift Valley fever virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) 32:1154–1163. [PubMed]
  • Gargan T.P. II, Clark G.G., Dohm D.J., Turell M.J., Bailey C.L., Vector potential of selected North American mosquito species for Rift Valley fever virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) 38:440–446. [PubMed]
  • Gargan T.P. II, Jupp P.G., Novak R.J., Panveld oviposition sites of floodwater Aedes mosquitoes and attempts to detect transovarial transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa, Med. Vet. Entomol. (1988) 2:231–236. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gauliard N., Billecocq A., Flick R., Bouloy M., Rift Valley fever virus noncoding regions of L, M and S segments regulate RNA synthesis, Virology (2006) 351:170–179. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gear J., De Meillon B., Le Roux A.F., Kofsky R., Innes R.R., Steyn J.J., et al., Rift valley fever in South Africa; a study of the 1953 outbreak in the Orange Free State, with special reference to the vectors and possible reservoir hosts, S. Afr. Med. J. (1955) 29:514–518. [PubMed]
  • Gerdes G.H., Rift Valley Fever, in: Office International des Epizooties (Ed.), Manual of diagnostic yests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees), Chapter 2.1.8., Paris, 2004, pp. 185–194.
  • Gerdes G.H., Rift Valley fever, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. (2004) 23:613–623.
  • Gerrard S.R., Nichol S.T., Characterization of the Golgi retention motif of Rift Valley fever virus GN glycoprotein, J. Virol. (2002) 76:12200–12210. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gerrard S.R., Li L., Barrett A.D., Nichol S.T., Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa, J. Virol. (2004) 78:8922–8926. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gerrard S.R., Bird B.H., Albarino C.G., Nichol S.T., The NSm proteins of Rift Valley fever virus are dispensable for maturation, replication and infection, Virology (2007) 359:459–465. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Giorgi C., Accardi L., Nicoletti L., Gro M.C., Takehara K., Hilditch C., et al., Sequences and coding strategies of the S RNAs of Toscana and Rift Valley fever viruses compared to those of Punta Toro, Sicilian sandfly fever, and Uukuniemi viruses, Virology (1991) 180:738–753. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gorchakov R., Volkova E., Yun N., Petrakova O., Seth Linde N., Paessler S., et al., Comparative analysis of the alphavirus-based vectors expressing Rift Valley fever virus glycoproteins, Virology (2007) 366:212–225. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gro M.C., Di Bonito P., Accardi L., Giorgi C., Analysis of 3’ and 5’ ends of N and NSs messenger RNAs of Toscana Phlebovirus, Virology (1992) 191:435–438. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Habjan M., Penski N., Spiegel M., Weber F., T7 RNA polymerase-dependent and -independent systems for cDNA–based rescue of Rift Valley fever virus, J. Gen. Virol. (2008) 89:2157–2166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Habjan M., Penski N., Wagner V., Spiegel M., Overby A.K., Kochs G., et al., Efficient production of Rift Valley fever virus-like particles: The antiviral protein MxA can inhibit primary transcription of bunyaviruses, Virology (2009) 385:400–408. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Habjan M., Pichlmair A., Elliott R.M., Overby A.K., Glatter T., Gstaiger M., et al., NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), J. Virol. (2009) 83:4365–4375. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hanotte O., Bradley D.G., Ochieng J.W., Verjee Y., Hill E.W., Rege J.E., African pastoralism: genetic imprints of origins and migrations, Science (2002) 296:336–339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Harrington D.G., Lupton H.W., Crabbs C.L., Peters C.J., Reynolds J.A., Slone T.W. Jr, Evaluation of a formalin-inactivated Rift Valley fever vaccine in sheep, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1980) 41:1559–1564. [PubMed]
  • Heise M.T., Whitmore A., Thompson J., Parsons M., Grobbelaar A.A., Kemp A., et al., An alphavirus replicon-derived candidate vaccine against Rift Valley fever virus, Epidemiol. Infect. (2009) 137:1309–1318. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Henderson B.E., McCrae A.W.R., Kirya B.G., Ssenkubuge Y., Sempala S.D.K., Arbovirus epizootics affecting man, mosquitoes and vertebrates at Lunyo, Uganda 1968, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1972) 66:343–355. [PubMed]
  • Holman D.H., Penn–Nicholson A., Wang D., Woraratanadharm J., Harr M.K., Luo M., et al., A complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine against Rift Valley fever virus protects mice against lethal infection in the presence of preexisting vector immunity, Clin. Vaccine Immunol. (2009) 16:1624–1632. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hoogstraal H., Meegan J.M., Khalil G.M., The Rift Valley fever epizootic in Egypt 1977–78, II. Ecological and entomological studies, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1979) 73:624–629. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Horsfall W.R., Mosquitoes: their bionomics and relation to disease, Hafner Pub. Co., New York, 1972.
  • Hubbard K.A., Baskerville A., Stephenson J.R., Ability of a mutagenized virus variant to protect young lambs from Rift Valley fever, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1991) 52:50–55. [PubMed]
  • Huiskonen J.T., Overby A.K., Weber F., Grunewald K., Electron cryo–microscopy and single–particle averaging of Rift Valley fever virus: evidence for GN–GC glycoprotein heterodimers, J. Virol. (2009) 83:3762–3769. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hunter P., Erasmus B.J., Vorster J.H., Teratogenicity of a mutagenised Rift Valley fever virus (MVP 12) in sheep, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (2001) 69:95–98.
  • Hutchinson K.L., Peters C.J., Nichol S.T., Sin Nombre virus mRNA synthesis, Virology (1996) 224:139–149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ibrahim M.S., Turell M.J., Knauert F.K., Lofts R.S., Detection of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquitoes by RT-PCR, Mol. Cell. Probes (1997) 11:49–53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Peters C.J., Makino S., Rift Valley fever virus nonstructural protein NSs promotes viral RNA replication and transcription in a minigenome system, J. Virol. (2005) 79:5606–5615. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Won S., Peters C.J., Makino S., Rift Valley fever virus NSs mRNA is transcribed from an incoming anti-viral-sense S RNA segment, J. Virol. (2005) 79:12106–12111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Won S., Peters C.J., Makino S., Rescue of infectious Rift Valley fever virus entirely from cDNA, analysis of virus lacking the NSs gene, and expression of a foreign gene, J. Virol. (2006) 80:2933–2940. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Won S., Peters C.J., Makino S., Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus transcriptional terminations, J. Virol. (2007) 81:8421–8438. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Makino S., Rift Valley fever vaccines, vaccine (2009) 27:D69–72. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ikegami T., Narayanan K., Won S., Kamitani W., Peters C.J., Makino S., Dual functions of Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein: inhibition of host mRNA transcription and post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2009) 1171:E75–85. [CrossRef]
  • Ikegami T., Narayanan K., Won S., Kamitani W., Peters C.J., Makino S., Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation, PLoS Pathog. (2009) 5:e1000287. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ito N., Takayama-Ito M., Yamada K., Hosokawa J., Sugiyama M., Minamoto N., Improved recovery of rabies virus from cloned cDNA using a vaccinia virus-free reverse genetics system, Microbiol. Immunol. (2003) 47:613–617. [PubMed]
  • Jansen van Vuren P., Potgieter A.C., Paweska J.T., van Dijk A.A., Preparation and evaluation of a recombinant Rift Valley fever virus N protein for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in humans and animals by indirect ELISA, J. Virol. Methods (2007) 140:106–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jansen van Vuren P., Paweska J.T., Laboratory safe detection of nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus in human and animal specimens by a sandwich ELISA, J. Virol. Methods (2009) 157:15–24. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jenkins G.M., Rambaut A., Pybus O.G., Holmes E.C., Rates of molecular evolution in RNA viruses: a quantitative phylogenetic analysis, J. Mol. Evol. (2002) 54:156–165. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Johnson B.K., Chanas A.C., el-Tayeb E., Abdel–Wahab K.S., Sheheta F.A., Mohamed A.E.-D., Rift Valley fever in Egypt, 1978, Lancet (1978) 2:745. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jupp P.G., McIntosh B.M., Thompson D.L., Isolation of Rift Valley fever virus from Aedes (Neomelaniconion) circumluteolus and luteolateralis collected during an outbreak in cattle in the coastal region of Natal, South Africa, S. Afr. J. Sci. (1983) 79:377.
  • Jupp P.G., Cornel A.J., Vector competence tests with Rift Valley fever virus and five South African species of mosquito, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1988) 4:4–8. [PubMed]
  • Jupp P.G., Kemp A., The potential for dengue in South Africa: vector competence tests with dengue 1 and 2 viruses and 6 mosquito species, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1993) 87:639–643. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jupp P.G., The ecology of West Nile virus in South Africa and the occurence of outbreaks in humans, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2001) 951:143–152. [CrossRef]
  • Jupp P.G., Kemp A., Grobbelaar A., Leman P., Burt F.J., Alahmed A.M., et al., The 2000 epidemic of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia: Mosquito vector studies, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2002) 16:245–252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kamal S.A., Pathological studies on postvaccinal reactions of Rift Valley fever in goats, Virol. J. (2009) 6:94. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kasari T.R., CarrD.A., Lynn T.V., Weaver J.T., Evaluation of pathways for release of Rift Valley fever virus into domestic ruminant livestock, ruminant wildlife, and human populations in the continental United States, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2008) 232:514–529. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Keefer G.V., Zebarth G.L., Allen W.P., Susceptibility of dogs and cats to Rift Valley fever by inhalation or ingestion of virus, J. Infect. Dis. (1972) 125:307–309. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kitchen S.F., Laboratory infections with the virus of Rift Valley fever, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1934) 14:547–564.
  • Klein F., Walker J.S., Mahlandt B.G., Carter R.C., Orlando M.D., Weirether F.J., Lincoln R.E., Interacting factors that influence long-term storage of live Pasteurella tularensis vaccine and Rift Valley fever virus, Appl. Microbiol. (1969) 17:427–434. [PubMed]
  • Kokernot R.H., Heymann C.S., Muspratt J., Wolstenholme B., Studies on arthropod-borne viruses of Tongaland. V. Isolation of Bunyamwera and Rift Valley fever viruses from mosquitoes, S. Afr. J. Med. Sci. (1957) 22:71–80. [PubMed]
  • Kortekaas J., Dekker A., de Boer S.M., Weerdmeester K., Vloet R.P., Wit A.A., et al., Intramuscular inoculation of calves with an experimental Newcastle disease virus-based vector vaccine elicits neutralizing antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus, Vaccine (2010) 28:2271–2276. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Labuda M., Nuttall P.A., Tick-borne viruses, Parasitology (2004) 129:S221–S245. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lagerqvist N., Naslund J., Lundkvist A., Bouloy M., Ahlm C., Bucht G., Characterisation of immune responses and protective efficacy in mice after immunisation with Rift Valley fever virus cDNA constructs, Virol. J. (2009) 6:6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lappin D.F., Nakitare G.W., Palfreyman J.W., Elliott R.M., Localization of Bunyamwera bunyavirus G1 glycoprotein to the Golgi requires association with G2 but not with NSm, J. Gen. Virol. (1994) 75:3441–3451. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Laughlin L.W., Meegan J.M., Strausbaugh L.J., Epidemic Rift Valley fever in Egypt: Observations of the spectrum of human illness, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1979) 73:630–633. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Le May N., Dubaele S., De Santis L.P., Billecocq A., Bouloy M., Egly J.M., TFIIH Transcription factor, a target for the Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever virus, Cell (2004) 116:541–550. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Le May N., Mansuroglu Z., Leger P., Josse T., Blot G., Billecocq A., et al., A SAP30 complex inhibits IFN-beta expression in Rift Valley fever virus infected cells, PLoS Pathog. (2008) 4:0134–0144.
  • Le Roux C.A., Kubo T., Grobbelaar A.A., van Vuren P.J., Weyer J., Nel L.H., et al., Development and evaluation of a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Rift Valley fever virus in clinical specimens, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2009) 47:645–651. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lee V.H., Isolation of viruses from field populations of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nigeria, J. Med. Entomol. (1979) 16:76–79. [PubMed]
  • Lefèvre P.C., La fièvre de la vallée du Rift, Ann. Méd. Vét. (1989) 133:453–463.
  • Linthicum K.G., Davies F.G., Bailey C.L., Kairo A., Mosquito species succession in a dambo in an East African forest, Mosq. News (1983) 43:464–470.
  • Linthicum K.J., Bailey C.L., Davies F.G., Kairo A., Observations on the dispersal and survival of a population of Aedes lineatopennis (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya, Bull. Entomol. Res. (1985) 75:661–670. [CrossRef]
  • Linthicum K.J., Davies F.G., Kairo A., Bailey C.L., Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya, J. Hyg. (1985) 95:197–209. [CrossRef]
  • Linthicum K.J., Kaburia H.F., Davies F.G., Lindqvist K.J., A blood meal analysis of engorged mosquitoes found in Rift Valley fever epizootics area in Kenya, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1985) 1:93–95. [PubMed]
  • Liu L., Celma C.C.P., Roy P., Rift Valley fever virus structural proteins: Expression, characterization and assembly of recombinant proteins, Virol. J. (2008) 5:82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Logan T.M., Linthicum K.J., Davies F.G., Binepal Y.S., Roberts C.R., Isolation of Rift Valley fever virus from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during an outbreak in domestic animals in Kenya, J. Med. Entomol. (1991) 28:293–295. [PubMed]
  • Lopez N., Muller R., Prehaud C., Bouloy M., The L protein of Rift Valley fever virus can rescue viral ribonucleoproteins and transcribe synthetic genome-like RNA molecules, J. Virol. (1995) 69:3972–3979. [PubMed]
  • López N., Franze-Fernández M.T., A single stem-loop structure in Tacaribe arenavirus intergenic region is essential for transcription termination but is not required for a correct initiation of transcription and replication, Virus Res. (2007) 124:237–244. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • MacOwan K.D., The development of a livestock industry in Kenya, Vet. Hist. (1994) 8:29–37. [PubMed]
  • Madani T.A., Al-Mazrou Y.Y., Al-Jeffri M.H., Mishkhas A.A., Al-Rabeah A.M., Turkistani A.M., et al., Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, Clin. Infect. Dis. (2003) 37:1084–1092.
  • Magurano F., Nicoletti L., Humoral response in Toscana virus acute neurologic disease investigated by viral-protein-specific immunoassays, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1999) 6:55–60. [PubMed]
  • Mansfield K.L., Johnson N., Phipps L.P., Stephenson J.R., Fooks A., Solomon T., Tick–borne encephalitis virus, A review of an emerging zoonosis, J. Gen. Virol. (2009) 90:1781–1794. [CrossRef]
  • Mansuroglu Z., Josse T., Gilleron J., Billecocq A., Leger P., Bouloy M., Bonnefoy E., Non structural NSs protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus interacts with pericentromeric DNA sequences of the host cell inducing chromosome cohesion and segregation defects, J. Virol. (2010) 84:928–939. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Marechal F., Ribeiro N., Lafaye M., Güell A., Satellite imaging and vector-borne diseases: the approach of the French National Space Agency (CNES), Geospat. Health (2008) 3:1–5. [PubMed]
  • Martin V., De Simone L., Lubroth J., Ceccato P., Chevalier V., Perspectives on using remotely-sensed imagery in predictive veterinary epidemiology and global early warning systems, Geospat. Health (2007) 2:3–14. [PubMed]
  • Martin V., Chevalier V., Ceccato P., Anyamba A., De Simone L., Lubroth J., et al., The impact of climate change on the epidemiology and control of Rift Valley fever, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. (2008) 27:413–426.
  • McElroy A., Albarino C., Nichol S., Development of a RVFV ELISA that can distinguish infected from vaccinated animals, Virol. J. (2009) 6:125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • McIntosh B.M., Rift Valley fever. 1. Vector studies in the field, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. (1972) 43:391–395.
  • McIntosh B.M., Dickinson D.B., Dos Santos I., Rift Valley fever. 3. Viraemia in cattle and sheep. 4. The susceptibility of mice and hamsters in relation to transmission of virus by mosquitoes, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. (1973) 44:167–169. [PubMed]
  • McIntosh B.M., Jupp P.G., Anderson D., Dickinson D.B., Rift Valley fever. II. Attempts to transmit virus with seven species of mosquito, J. S. Afr. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1973) 44:57–60. [PubMed]
  • McIntosh B.M., Mosquitoes as vectors of viruses in Southern Africa. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agricultural Technical Services of the Republic of South Africa, 1975, pp. 1–19.
  • McIntosh B.M., Jupp P.G., Dos Santos I., Barnard B.J.H., Vector studies on Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa, S. Afr. Med. J. (1980) 58:127–132. [PubMed]
  • McIntosh B.M., Russell D., Dos Santos I., Gear J.H.S., Rift Valley fever in humans in South Africa, S. Afr. Med. J. (1980) 58:803–806. [PubMed]
  • McIntosh B.M., Jupp P.G., Epidemiolological aspects of Rift Valley fever in South Africa with reference to vectors, in: Swartz T.A., Klinberg M.A., Goldblum N., Papier C.M. (Eds.), Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics: Rift Valley fever, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1981, pp. 92–99.
  • McIntosh B.M., Jupp P.G., Dos Santos I., Rowe A.C., Field and laboratory evidence implicating Culex zombaensis and Aedes circumluteolus as vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in coastal South Africa, S. Afr. J. Sci. (1983) 79:61–64.
  • Meegan J., Bailey C.L., Rift Valley fever, in: Monath T.P. (Ed.), The arboviruses: Epidemiology and ecology, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 1989, pp. 51–76.
  • Meegan J., Le Guenno B., Ksiazek T., Jouan A., Knauert F., Digoutte J.P., Peters C.J., Rapid diagnosis of Rift Valley fever: A comparison of methods for the direct detection of viral antigen in human sera, Res. Virol. (1989) 140:59–65. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Meegan J.M., Khalil G.M., Hoogstraal H., Adham F.K., Experimental transmission and field isolation studies implicating Culex pipiens as a vector of Rift Valley fever virus in Egypt, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1980) 29:1405–1410. [PubMed]
  • Meegan J.M., Rift valley fever in Egypt: an overview of the epizootics in 1977 and 1978, in: Swartz T.A., Klinberg M.A., Goldblum N., Papier C.M. (Eds.), Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics: Rift Valley fever, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1981, pp. 100–113
  • Mellor P.S., Hamblin C., African horse sickness, Vet. Res. (2004) 35:445–466. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Miller B.R., Godsey M.S., Crabtree M.B., Savage H.M., Al-Mazrao Y., Al-Jeffri M.H., et al., Isolation and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Aedes vexans arabiensis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2002) 8:1492–1494. [PubMed]
  • Mims C.A., Mason P.J., Rift Valley fever in mice. V. The properties of a haemagglutinin present in infective serum, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. (1956) 37:423–433. [PubMed]
  • Monath T.P., Yellow fever, in: Monath T.P. (Ed.), The arboviruses: Epidemiology and ecology, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 1989, pp. 139–231.
  • Morrill J.C., Jennings G.B., Caplen H., Turell M.J., Johnson A.J., Peters C.J., Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a mutagen-attenuated Rift Valley fever virus immunogen in pregnant ewes, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1987) 48:1042–1047. [PubMed]
  • Morrill J.C., Knauert F.K., Ksiazek T.G., Meegan J.M., Peters C.J., Rift Valley fever infection of Rhesus monkeys: Implications for rapid diagnosis of human disease, Res. Virol. (1989) 140:139–146. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morrill J.C., Carpenter L., Taylor D., Ramsburg H.H., Quance J., Peters C.J., Further evaluation of a mutagen-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccine in sheep, Vaccine (1991) 9:35–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morrill J.C., McClain D.J., Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever and other phleboviruses, in: Elliott R.M. (Ed.), The Bunyaviridae, Plenum Press, New York, 1996, pp. 281–293.
  • Morrill J.C., Mebus C.A., Peters C.J., Safety of a mutagen-attenuated Rift valley fever virus vaccine in fetal and neonatal bovids, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1997) 58:1110–1114. [PubMed]
  • Morrill J.C., Mebus C.A., Peters C.J., Safety and efficacy of a mutagen-attenuated Rift valley fever virus vaccine in cattle, Am. J. Vet. Res. (1997) 58:1104–1109. [PubMed]
  • Morvan J., Fontenille D., Saluzzo J.F., Coulanges P., Possible rift valley fever outbreak in man and cattle in Madagascar, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1991) 85:108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morvan J., Saluzzo J.F., Fontenille D., Rollin P.E., Coulanges P., Rift Valley fever on the east coast of Madagascar, Res. Virol. (1991) 142:475–482. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morvan J., Lesbordes J.L., Rollin P.E., Mouden J.C., Roux J., First fatal case of Rift Valley fever in Madagascar, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1992) 86:320. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morvan J., Rollin P.E., Laventure S., Roux J., Duration of immunoglobulin M antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in cattle after natural infection, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1992) 86:675. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Moussa M.I., Abdel–Wahab K.S.E., Wood O.L., Experimental infection and protection of lambs with a minute plaque variant of Rift Valley fever virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1986) 35:660–662. [PubMed]
  • Moutailler S., Krida G., Schaffner F., Vazeille M., Failloux A.B., Potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in the Mediterranean region, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2008) 8:749–754. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Muller R., Poch O., Delarue M., Bishop D.H.L., Bouloy M., Rift Valley fever virus L segment: correction of the sequence and possible functional role of newly identified regions conserved in RNA-dependent polymerases, J. Gen. Virol. (1994) 75:1345–1352. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Muller R., Saluzzo J.F., Lopez N., Dreier T., Turell M., Smith J., Bouloy M., Characterization of clone 13, a naturally attenuated avirulent isolate of Rift Valley fever virus, which is altered in the small segment, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) 53:405–411. [PubMed]
  • Nakitare G.W., Elliott R.M., Expression of the Bunyamwera virus M genome segment and intracellular localization of NSm, Virology (1993) 195:511–520. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Nasher A.A.W., Shiban A.K., Al Eriyani M., Aly Bourgy A., Al Kohlani A.H., Benbrake M., et al., Outbreak of Rift Valley fever – Yemen, August–October 2000, MMWR Morb. Mort. Wkly Rep. (2000) 49:1065–1066.
  • Naslund J., Lagerqvist N., Habjan M., Lundkvist A., Evander M., Ahlm C., et al., Vaccination with virus-like particles protects mice from lethal infection of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology (2009) 385:409–415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Neumann G., Kawaoka Y., Genetic engineering of influenza and other negative-strand RNA viruses containing segmented genomes, Adv. Virus Res. (1999) 53:265–300. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Nguku P., Sharif S., Omar A., Nzioka C., Muthoka P., Njau J. et al., Rift Valley fever outbreak – Kenya, November 2006–January 2007, MMWR Morb. Mort. Wkly Rep. (2007) 56:73–76.
  • Nichol S.T., Beaty B.J., Elliott R.M., Goldbach R.W., Plyusnin A., Tesh R.B., The Bunyaviridae, in: Fauquet C., Mayo M.A., Maniloff L.S.M., Desselberger U., Ball L.A. (Eds.), Virus taxonomy. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. VIIIth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Elsevier Academic Press, London, 2005, pp. 695–716.
  • Niklasson B., Grandien M., Peters C.J., Gargan T.P. II, Detection of Rift Valley fever virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) 17:1026–1031. [PubMed]
  • Niklasson B., Peters C.J., Grandien M., Wood O., Detection of human immunoglobulins G and M antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) 19:225–229. [PubMed]
  • Njenga M.K., Paweska J., Wanjala R., Rao C.Y., Weiner M., Omballa V., et al., Using field qRT-PCR test to rapidly identify highly viremic Rift Valley fever cases, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2009) 47:1166–1171. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Olaleye O.D., Tomori O., Fajimi J.L., Schmitz H., Experimental infection of three Nigerian breeds of sheep with the Zinga strain of the Rift Valley fever virus, Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. (1996) 49:6–16. [PubMed]
  • Overby A.K., Pettersson R.F., Grunewald K., Huiskonen J.T., Insights into bunyavirus architecture from electron cryotomography of Uukuniemi virus, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2008) 105:2375–2379. [CrossRef]
  • Paweska J.T., Burt F.J., Anthony F., Smith S.J., Grobbelaar A.A., Croft J.E., et al., IgG-sandwich and IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in domestic ruminants, J. Virol. Methods (2003) 113:103–112. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Paweska J.T., Smith S.J., Wright I.M., Williams R., Cohen A.S., Van Dijk A.A., et al., Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Rift Valley fever virus in domestic and wild ruminant sera, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (2003) 70:49–64. [PubMed]
  • Paweska J.T., Burt F.J., Swanepoel R., Validation of IgG-sandwich and IgM-capture ELISA for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in humans, J. Virol. Methods (2005) 124:173–181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Paweska J.T., Mortimer E., Leman P.A., Swanepoel R., An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in humans, domestic and wild ruminants, J. Virol. Methods (2005) 127:10–18. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Paweska J.T., Van Vuren P.J., Swanepoel R., Validation of an indirect ELISA based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus for the detection of IgG antibody in humans, J. Virol. Methods (2007) 146:119–124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Paweska J.T., Van Vuren P.J., Kemp A., Buss P., Bengis R.G., Gakuya F., et al., Recombinant nucleocapsid-based ELISA for detection of IgG antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in African buffalo, Vet. Microbiol. (2008) 127:21–28. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Pépin M., Paweska J., Bouloy M., Diagnostic specificity of ELISA-based tests for the detection of antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in French ruminants, Rev. Méd. Vét. (2010) 161:104–107.
  • Peters C.J., Anderson G.W., Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever, Contrib. Epidemiol. Biostat. (1981) 3:21–41.
  • Peters C.J., Slone T.W., Inbred rat strains mimic the disparate human response to Rift Valley fever virus infection, J. Med. Virol. (1982) 10:45–54. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Peters C.J., Reynolds J.A., Slone T.W., Prophylaxis of Rift Valley fever with antiviral drugs, immune serum, an interferon inducer, and a macrophage activator, Antiviral Res. (1986) 6:285–297. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Peyrefitte C.N., Boubis L., Coudrier D., Bouloy M., Grandadam M., Tolou H.J., Plumet S., Real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of Rift Valley fever virus, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2008) 46:3653–3659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Pfeiffer D., Pépin M., Wooldridge M., Schudel A., Baldet T., Davies G., et al., AHAW Panel Members, Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) on a request from the Commission related to “The risk of a Rift Valley fever incursion and its persistence within the Community”, EFSA, http://www.efsa.europa.eu, Parma (Italy), 2005, pp. 1–130.
  • Pollitt E., Zhao J., Muscat P., Elliott R.M., Characterization of Maguari orthobunyavirus mutants suggests the nonstructural protein NSm is not essential for growth in tissue culture, Virology (2006) 348:224–232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Prehaud C., Lopez N., Blok M.J., Obry V., Bouloy M., Analysis of the 3’ terminal sequence recognized by the Rift Valley fever virus transcription complex in its ambisense S segment, Virology (1997) 227:189–197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Rice R.M., Erlick B.J., Rosato R.R., Eddy G.A., Mohanty S.B., Biochemical characterization of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology (1980) 105:256–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ritter M., Bouloy M., Vialat P., Janzen C., Haller O., Frese M., Resistance to Rift Valley fever virus in Rattus norvegicus: Genetic variability within certain ‘inbred’ strains, J. Gen. Virol. (2000) 81:2683–2688. [PubMed]
  • Rodhain F., Albina E., André-Fontaine G., Armengaud M., Dreyfuss G., Dufour B., et al., Rapport sur l’évaluation du risque d’apparition et de développement des maladies animales compte tenu d’un éventuel réchauffement climatique, AFSSA, www.afssa.fr , Maisons-Alfort, 2005, pp. 1–78.
  • Rossi C.A., Turell M.J., Characterization of attenuated strains of Rift Valley fever virus, J. Gen. Virol. (1988) 69.
  • Sall A.A., Zanotto P.M.D.A., Zeller H.G., Digoutte J.P., Thiongane Y., Bouloy M., Variability of the NSs protein among Rift Valley fever virus isolates, J. Gen. Virol. (1997) 78:2853–2858. [PubMed]
  • Sall A.A., Zanotto P.M.A., Vialat P., Sene O.K., Bouloy M., Molecular epidemiology and emergence of Rift Valley fever, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (1998) 93:609–614. [PubMed]
  • Sall A.A., Zanotto P.M.D.A., Vialat P., Sene O.K., Bouloy M.B., Origin of 1997–1998 Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa, Lancet (1998) 352:1596–1597. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sall A.A., Zanotto P.M.D.A., Sene O.K., Zeller H.G., Digoutte J.P., Thiongane Y., Bouloy M., Genetic reassortment of Rift Valley fever virus in nature, J. Virol. (1999) 73:8196–8200. [PubMed]
  • Sall A.A., Macondo E.A., Sène O.K., Diagne M., Sylla R., Mondo M., et al., Use of reverse transcriptase PCR in early diagnosis of Rift Valley fever, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) 9:713–715. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Saluzzo J.F., Smith J.F., Use of reassortant viruses to map attenuating and temperature-sensitive mutations of the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine, Vaccine (1990) 8:369–375. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Schwarz T.F., Gilch S., Pauli C., Jager G., Immunoblot detection of antibodies to Toscana virus, J. Med. Virol. (1996) 49:83–86. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sherman M.B., Freiberg A.N., Holbrook M.R., Watowich S.J., Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology (2009) 387:11–15. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Shoemaker T., Boulianne C., Vincent M.J., Pezzanite L., Al-Qahtani M.M., Al-Mazrou Y., et al., Genetic analysis of viruses associated with emergence of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000–2001, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2002) 8:1415–1420. [PubMed]
  • Shope R.E., Sather G.E., Arboviruses, in: Lenette E.H., Schmidt N.J. (Eds.), Diagnostic procedures for viral rickettsial and chlamydial infections, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1979, pp. 767–814.
  • Simons J.F., Hellman U., Pettersson R.F., Uukuniemi virus S RNA segment: ambisense coding strategy, packaging of complementary strands into virions, and homology to members of the genus Phlebovirus, J. Virol. (1990) 64:247–255.
  • Sissoko D., Giry C., Gabrie P., Tarantola A., Pettinelli F., Collet L., et al., Rift Valley fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2009) 15:568–570. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Smithburn K.C., Haddow A.J., Gillett J.D., Rift Valley fever; isolation of the virus from wild mosquitoes, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. (1948) 29:107–121.
  • Smithburn K.C., Rift Valley fever: the neurotropic adaptation of the virus and the experimental use of this modified virus as a vaccine, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. (1949) 30:1–16.
  • Smithburn K.C., Haddow A.J., Lumsden W.H., Rift Valley fever: transmission of the virus by mosquitoes, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. (1949) 30:35–47.
  • Smithburn K.C., Mahaffy A.F., et al., Rift Valley fever; accidental infections among laboratory workers, J. Immunol. (1949) 62:213–227. [PubMed]
  • Spik K., Shurtleff A., McElroy A.K., Guttieri M.C., Hooper J.W., Schmaljohn C., Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Vaccine (2006) 24:4657–4666.
  • Struthers J.K., Swanepoel R., Identification of a major non-structural protein in the nuclei of Rift Valley fever virus-infected cells, J. Gen. Virol. (1982) 60:381–384. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Swanepoel R., Studies on the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever, J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. (1976) 57:93–94.
  • Swanepoel R., Blackburn N.K., Demonstration of nuclear immunofluorescence in Rift Valley fever infected cells, J. Gen. Virol. (1977) 34:557–561. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Swanepoel R., Struthers J.K., Erasmus M.J., Comparison of techniques for demonstrating antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus, J. Hyg. (1986) 97:317–329. [CrossRef]
  • Swanepoel R., Struthers J.K., Erasmus M.J., Comparative pathogenicity and antigenic cross-reactivity of Rift Valley fever and other African phleboviruses in sheep, J. Hyg. (1986) 97:331–346. [CrossRef]
  • Swanepoel R., Coetzer J.A., Rift Valley fever, in: Coetzer J.A., Tustin R.C. (Eds.), Infectious diseases of livestock, Oxford University Press Southern Africa, Cape Town, 2004, pp. 1037–1070.
  • Taylor P., Swanepoel R., Observations on mosquitoes, midges and rodents during the 1978 Rift Valley fever epizootic in Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Vet. J. (1980) 11:44–49.
  • Tesh R.B., Peters C.J., Meegan J.M., Studies on the antigenic relationship among phleboviruses, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) 31:149–155. [PubMed]
  • Theiler M., Smith H.H., The effect of prolonged cultivation in vitro upon the pathogenicity of yellow fever virus, J. Exp. Med. (1937) 65:767–786. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Theiler M., Action of sodium desoxycholate on arthropod-borne viruses, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1957) 96:380–382. [PubMed]
  • Tolou H., Plumet S., Leparc-Goffart I., Couissinier-Paris P., Le virus de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift: évolution en cours, Méd. Trop. (2009) 69:215–220.
  • Tomori O., Clinical, virological and serological response of the West African dwarf sheep to experimental infection with different strains of Rift Valley fever virus, Res. Vet. Sci. (1979) 26:152–159. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Bailey C.L., Beaman J.R., Vector competence of a Houston, Texas strain of Aedes albopictus for Rift Valley fever virus, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1988) 4:94–96. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Faran M.E., Cornet M., Bailey C.L., Vector competence of Senegalese Aedes fowleri (Diptera: Culicidae) for Rift Valley fever virus, J. Med. Entomol. (1988) 25:262–266. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Linthicum K.J., Beaman J.R., Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by adult mosquitoes after ingestion of virus as larvae, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1990) 43:677–680. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Perkins P.V., Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by the sand fly, Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae), Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1990) 42:185–188. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Presley S.M., Gad A.M., Cope S.E., Dohm D.J., Morrill J.C., Arthur R.R., Vector competence of Egyptian mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) 54:136–139. [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Lee J.S., Richardson J.H., Sang R.C., Kioko E.N., Agawo M.O., et al., Vector competence of Kenyan Culex zombaensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (2007) 23:378–382. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Dohm D.J, Mores C.N., Terracina L., Wallette D.L. Jr, Hribar L.J., et al., Potential for North American mosquitoes to transmit Rift Valley fever virus, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (2008) 24:502–507. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Turell M.J., Linthicum K.J., Patrican L.A., Davies F.G., Kairo A., Bailey C.L., Vector competence of selected African mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species for Rift Valley fever virus, J. Med. Entomol. (2008) 45:102–108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Van Velden D.J.J., Meyer J.D., Olivier J., Rift Valley fever affecting humans in South Africa. A clinicopathological study, S. Afr. Med. J. (1977) 51:867–871. [PubMed]
  • Vapalahti O., Kallio-Kokko H., Narvanen A., Julkunen I., Lundkvist A., Plyusnin A., et al., Human B-cell epitopes of Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein, the major antigen in early serological response, J. Med. Virol. (1995) 46:293–303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vialat P., Muller R., Vu T.H., Prehaud C., Bouloy M., Mapping of the mutations present in the genome of the Rift Valley fever virus attenuated MP12 strain and their putative role in attenuation, Virus Res. (1997) 52:43–50. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vialat P., Billecocq A., Kohl A., Bouloy M., The S segment of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) carries determinants for attenuation and virulence in mice, J. Virol. (2000) 74:1538–1543. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vignolles C., Lacaux J.P., Tourre Y.M., Bigeard G., Ndione J.A., Lafaye M., Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping, Geospat. Health (2009) 3:211–220. [PubMed]
  • Von Bonsdorff C.H., Pettersson R., Surface structure of Uukuniemi virus, J. Virol. (1975) 16:1296–1307. [PubMed]
  • Walker J.S., Remmele N.S., Carter R.C., Mitten J.Q., Schuh L.G., Stephen E.L., Klein F., The clinical aspects of Rift Valley fever virus in household pets. I. Susceptibility of the dog, J. Infect. Dis. (1970) 121:9–18. [PubMed]
  • Walker J.S., Stephen E.L., Remmele N.S., Carter R.C., Mitten J.Q., Schuh L.G., Klein F., The clinical aspects of Rift Valley fever virus in household pets. II. Susceptibility of the cat, J. Infect. Dis. (1970) 121:19–24. [PubMed]
  • Wallace D.B., Viljoen G.J., Immune responses to recombinants of the South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion, Vaccine (2005) 23:3061–3067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Wallace D.B., Ellis C.E., Espach A., Smith S.J., Greyling R.R., Viljoen G.J., Protective immune responses induced by different recombinant vaccine regimes to Rift Valley fever, Vaccine (2006) 24:7181–7189. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Wasmoen T.L., Kakach L.T., Collett M.S., Rift Valley fever virus M segment: cellular localization of M segment-encoded proteins, Virology (1988) 166:275–280. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Weaver S.C., Host range, amplification and arboviral disease emergence, Arch. Virol. (2005) S33–S44.
  • Weaver S.C., Reisen W.K., Present and future arboviral threats, Antiviral Res. (2010) 85:328–345. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Weber F., Dunn E.F., Bridgen A., Elliott R.M., The Bunyamwera virus nonstructural protein NSs inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a minireplicon system, Virology (2001) 281:67–74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Weinbren M.P., Williams M.C., Haddow A.J., A variant of Rift Valley fever virus, S. Afr. Med. J. (1957) 31:951–957. [PubMed]
  • White D.M., Wilson W.C., Blair C.D., Beaty B.J., Studies on overwintering of bluetongue viruses in insects, J. Gen. Virol. (2005) 86:453–462. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Whitlow R., Some morphological characteristics of dambo features in Zimbabwe, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association (1984) 62:1–15.
  • WHO, Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Somalia and United Republic of Tanzania, December 2006–April 2007, Weekly Epidemiol. Rec. (2007) 82:169–178.
  • Williams M.C., Woodall J.P., Corbet P.S., Haddow A.J., An outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurring near Entebbe: entomological studies and further isolations, East African Virus Research Institute Reports (1960) 10:24–25.
  • Won S., Ikegami T., Peters C.J., Makino S., NSm protein of Rift Valley fever virus suppresses virus-induced apoptosis, J. Virol. (2007) 81:13335–13345. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Xu F., Liu D., Nunes M.R., Da Rosa A.P., Tesh R.B., Xiao S.Y., Antigenic and genetic relationships among Rift Valley fever virus and other selected members of the genus Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae), Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2007) 76:1194–1200. [PubMed]
  • Yedloutschnig R.J., Dardiri A.H., Walker J.S., Persistence of Rift valley fever virus in the spleen, liver, and brain of sheep after experimental infection, in: Swartz T.A., Klinberg M.A., Goldblum N., Papier C.M. (Eds.), Contributions to epidemiology and biostatistics: Rift Valley fever, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1981, pp. 72–76.
  • Young A., Tropical soils and soil survey, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1976.
  • Zabransky R.J., Is Rift Valley fever a threat in the United States?, Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. (2005) 27:41.
  • Zaki A., Coudrier D., Yousef A.I., Fakeeh M., Bouloy M., Billecocq A., Production of monoclonal antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus: Application for rapid diagnosis tests (virus detection and ELISA) in human sera, J. Virol. Methods (2006) 131:34–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Zeller H.G., Fontenille D., Traore-Lamizana M., Thiongane Y., Digoutte J.P., Enzootic activity of rift valley fever virus in Senegal, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) 56:265–272. [PubMed]
  • Zhao J., Kim K.D., Yang X., Auh S., Fu Y.X., Tang H., Hyper innate responses in neonates lead to increased morbidity and mortality after infection, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2008) 105:7528–7533. [CrossRef]