Free access
Review
Issue
Vet. Res.
Volume 41, Number 6, November–December 2010
Emerging and re-emerging animal viruses
Number of page(s) 14
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2010016
Published online 04 March 2010
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2010) 41:44
  • Agapov E.V., Murray C.L., Frolov I., Qu L., Myers T.M., Rice C.M., Uncleaved NS2-3 is required for production of infectious bovine viral diarrhea virus, J. Virol. (2004) 78:2414–2425. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Anonymous, Hepatitis C – global prevalence, Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. (1999) 74:421–428. [PubMed]
  • Arnal M.C., Fernández-De-Luco D., Riba L., Maley M., Gilray J., Willoughby K., et al., A novel pestivirus associated with deaths in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica), J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:3653–3657. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Audet S.A., Crim R.L., Beeler J., Evaluation of vaccines, interferons and cell substrates for pestivirus contamination, Biologicals (2000) 28:41–46. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bachofen C., Stalder H., Braun U., Hilbe M., Ehrensperger F., Peterhans E., Co-existence of genetically and antigenically diverse bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in an endemic situation, Vet. Microbiol. (2008) 131:93–102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bachofen C., Braun U., Hilbe M., Ehrensperger F., Stalder H.P., Peterhans E., Clinical appearance and pathology of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus of different genetic subgroups, Vet. Microbiol. (2010) 141:258–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Balint A., Baule C., Pálfi V., Belák S., Retrospective genome analysis of a live vaccine strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus, Vet. Res. (2005) 36:89–99. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Bauhofer O., Summerfield A., Sakoda Y., Tratschin J.D., Hofmann M.A., Ruggli N., Classical swine fever virus Npro interacts with interferon regulatory factor 3 and induces its proteasomal degradation, J. Virol. (2007) 81:3087–3096. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Becher P., Orlich M., König M., Thiel H.-J., Nonhomologous RNA recombination in bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular characterization of a variety of subgenomic RNAs isolated during an outbreak of fatal mucosal disease, J. Virol. (1999) 73:5646–5653. [PubMed]
  • Becher P., Avalos-Ramirez R., Orlich M., Rosales S.C., König M., Schweizer M., et al., Genetic and antigenic characterization of novel pestivirus genotypes: implications for classification, Virology (2003) 311:96–104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Bonjardim C.A., Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines in both innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses – and viruses counteract IFN action, Microbes Infect. (2005) 7:569–578. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Brackenbury L.S., Carr B.V., Charleston B., Aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses to acute infections with BVDV, Vet. Microbiol. (2003) 96:337–344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Braun U., Schönmann M., Ehrensperger F., Hilbe M., Brunner D., Stark K.D.C., Giger T., Epidemiology of bovine virus diarrhoea in cattle on communal alpine pastures in Switzerland, J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. (1998) 45:445–452.
  • Brownlie J., Clarke M.C., Howard C.J., Pocock D.H., Pathogenesis and epidemiology of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection of cattle, Ann. Rech. Vet. (1987) 18:157–166. [PubMed]
  • Brownlie J., Pathogenesis of mucosal disease and molecular aspects of bovine virus diarrhoea virus, Vet. Microbiol. (1990) 23:371–382. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Brownlie J., The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of disease, Arch. Virol. Suppl. (1991) 3:79–96. [PubMed]
  • Bálint A., Pálfi V., Belák S., Baule C., Viral sequence insertions and a novel cellular insertion in the NS2 gene of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus as potential cytopathogenicity markers, Virus Genes (2005) 30:49–58. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Charleston B., Fray M.D., Baigent S., Carr B.V., Morrison W.I., Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type I interferon, J. Gen. Virol. (2001) 82:1893–1897. [PubMed]
  • Charleston B., Brackenbury L.S., Carr B.V., Fray M.D., Hope J.C., Howard C.J., Morrison W.I., Alpha/beta and gamma interferons are induced by infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in vivo, J. Virol. (2002) 76:923–927. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chase C.C.L., Elmowalid G., Yousif A.A.A., The immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus: a constantly changing picture, Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. (2004) 20:95–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Chisari F.V., Unscrambling hepatitis C virus-host interactions, Nature (2005) 436:930–932. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Cleaveland S., Haydon D.T., Taylor L., Overviews of pathogen emergence: which pathogens emerge, when and why?, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (2007) 315:85–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Dubois E., Russo P., Prigent M., Thiéry R., Genetic characterization of ovine pestiviruses isolated in France, between 1985 and 2006, Vet. Microbiol. (2008) 130:69–79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Finlaison D.S., King K.R., Frost M.J., Kirkland P.D., Field and laboratory evidence that Bungowannah virus, a recently recognised pestivirus, is the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC), Vet. Microbiol. (2009) 136:259–265. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P., Feng D., The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense, Biochimie (2007) 89:843–855. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Fritzemeier J., Greiser-Wilke I., Haas L., Moennig V., New insights into the pathogenesis of mucosal disease (MD) of cattle, Prakt. Tierarzt (1997) 78:128–133.
  • Fritzemeier J., Haas L., Liebler E.M., Moennig V., Greiser-Wilke I., The development of early vs. late onset mucosal disease is a consequence of two different pathogenic mechanisms, Arch. Virol. (1997) 142:1335–1350. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Fulton R.W., Ridpath J.F., Saliki J.T., Briggs R.E., Confer A.W., Burge L.J., et al., Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b: predominant BVDV subtype in calves with respiratory disease, Can. J. Vet. Res. (2002) 66:181–190. [PubMed]
  • Gallei A., Pankraz A., Thiel H.J., Becher P., RNA recombination in vivo in the absence of viral replication, J. Virol. (2004) 78:6271–6281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gallei A., Blome S., Gilgenbach S., Tautz N., Moennig V., Becher P., Cytopathogenicity of classical swine fever virus correlates with attenuation in the natural host, J. Virol. (2008) 82:9717–9729. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Gil L.H.V.G., Ansari I.H., Vassilev V., Liang D.L., Lai V.C.H., Zhong W.D., et al., The amino-terminal domain of bovine viral diarrhea virus Npro protein is necessary for alpha/beta interferon antagonism, J. Virol. (2006) 80:900–911. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Givens M.D., Riddell K.P., Zhang Y., Galik P., Walz P.H., Brodersen B.W., et al., Safety and efficacy of vaccination of seronegative bulls with modified-live, cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses, Theriogenology (2009) 71:975–983. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hamers C., Lecomte C., Kulcsar G., Lambot M., Pastoret P.P., Persistently infected cattle stabilise bovine viral diarrhea virus leading to herd specific strains, Vet. Microbiol. (1998) 61:177–182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hamers C., Dehan P., Couvreur B., Letellier C., Kerkhofs P., Pastoret P.P., Diversity among bovine pestiviruses, Vet. J. (2001) 161:112–122. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hilton L., Moganeradj K., Zhang G., Chen Y.H., Randall R.E., McCauley J.W., Goodbourn S., The NPro product of bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits DNA binding by interferon regulatory factor 3 and targets it for proteasomal degradation, J. Virol. (2006) 80:11723–11732. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Hornberg A., Fernández S.R., Vogl C., Vilcek S., Matt M., Fink M., et al., Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria, Vet. Microbiol. (2009) 135:205–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Houe H., Epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus, Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. (1995) 11:521–547. [PubMed]
  • Iqbal M., Poole E., Goodbourn S., McCauley J.W., Role for bovine viral diarrhea virus Erns glycoprotein in the control of activation of beta interferon by double-stranded RNA, J. Virol. (2004) 78:136–145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jackova A., Novackova M., Pelletier C., Audeval C., Gueneau E., Haffar A., et al., The extended genetic diversity of BVDV-1: typing of BVDV isolates from France, Vet. Res. Commun. (2008) 32:7–11. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jones K.E., Patel N.G., Levy M.A., Storeygard A., Balk D., Gittleman J.L., Daszak P., Global trends in emerging infectious diseases, Nature (2008) 451:990–993. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Jones L.R., Cigliano M.M., Zandomeni R.O., Weber E.L., Phylogenetic analysis of bovine pestiviruses: testing the evolution of clinical symptoms, Cladistics (2004) 20:443–453. [CrossRef]
  • Kameyama K., Sakoda Y., Tamai K., Nagai M., Akashi H., Kida H., Genetic recombination at different points in the Npro-coding region of bovine viral diarrhea viruses and the potentials to change their antigenicities and pathogenicities, Virus Res. (2006) 116:78–84. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kirkland P.D., Frost M., Finlaison D.S., King K.R., Ridpath J.F., Gu X., Identification of a novel virus in pigs-Bungowannah virus: a possible new species of pestivirus, Virus Res. (2007) 129:26–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Krametter-Frötscher R., Loitsch A., Kohler H., Schleiner A., Schiefer P., Möstl K., et al., Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Austria, Vet. Rec. (2007) 160:726–730. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kümmerer B.M., Tautz N., Becher P., Thiel H.J., Meyers G., The genetic basis for cytopathogenicity of pestiviruses, Vet. Microbiol. (2000) 77:117–128. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • La Rocca S.A., Herbert R.J., Crooke H., Drew T.W., Wileman T.E., Powell P.P., Loss of interferon regulatory factor 3 in cells infected with classical swine fever virus involves the N-terminal protease, Npro, J. Virol. (2005) 79:7239–7247. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lackner T., Müller A., Pankraz A., Becher P., Thiel H.J., Gorbalenya A.E., Tautz N., Temporal modulation of an autoprotease is crucial for replication and pathogenicity of an RNA virus, J. Virol. (2004) 78:10765–10775. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lackner T., Müller A., König M., Thiel H.J., Tautz N., Persistence of bovine viral diarrhea virus is determined by a cellular cofactor of a viral autoprotease, J. Virol. (2005) 79:9746–9755. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lackner T., Thiel H.J., Tautz N., Dissection of a viral autoprotease elucidates a function of a cellular chaperone in proteolysis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2006) 103:1510–1515. [CrossRef]
  • Layden T.J., Mika B., Wiley T.E., Hepatitis C kinetics: mathematical modeling of viral response to therapy, Semin. Liver Dis. (2000) 20:173–183. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Le Bon A., Tough D.F., Type I interferon as a stimulus for cross-priming, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2008) 19:33–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lee H.K., Iwasaki A., Innate control of adaptive immunity: dendritic cells and beyond, Semin. Immunol. (2007) 19:48–55. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lindberg A., Brownlie J., Gunn G.J., Houe H., Moennig V., Saatkamp H.W., et al., The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Europe: today and in the future, Rev. Sci. Tech. (2006) 25:961–979. [PubMed]
  • Lindenbach B.D., Thiel H.-J., Rice C.M., Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication, in: Knipe D.M., Howley P.M. (Eds.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 2007, pp. 1101–1152.
  • Liu L., Kampa J., Belák S., Baule C., Virus recovery and full-length sequence analysis of atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen, Vet. Microbiol. (2009) 138:62–68. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Liu L., Xia H., Baule C., Belák S., Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined nucleotide sequence dataset for genetic characterization of a novel pestivirus, SVA/cont-08, Arch. Virol. (2009) 154:1111–1116. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Liu L., Xia H., Wahlberg N., Belák S., Baule C., Phylogeny, classification and evolutionary insights into pestiviruses, Virology (2009) 385:351–357. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Liu L., Xia H., Baule C., Belák S., Wahlberg N., Effects of methodology and analysis strategy on robustness of pestivirus phylogeny, Virus Res. (2010) 147:47–52. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Loehr B.I., Frey H.R., Moennig V., Greiser-Wilke I., Experimental induction of mucosal disease: consequences of superinfection of persistently infected cattle with different strains of cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus, Arch. Virol. (1998) 143:667–679. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Magkouras I., Mätzener P., Rümenapf T., Peterhans E., Schweizer M., RNase-dependent inhibition of extra-, but not intracellular, dsRNA-induced IFN synthesis by Erns of pestiviruses, J. Gen. Virol. (2008) 89:2501–2506. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Marco I., Rosell R., Cabezón O., Mentaberre G., Casas E., Velarde R., et al., Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain), Vet. Microbiol. (2008) 127:29–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Merten O.W., Virus contaminations of cell cultures – a biotechnological view, Cytotechnology (2002) 39:91–116. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Meyers G., Thiel H.-J., Molecular characterization of pestiviruses, Adv. Virus Res. (1996) 47:53–118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Moennig V., Plagemann P.G.W., The pestiviruses, Adv. Virus Res. (1992) 41:53–98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Mogensen T.H., Pathogen recognition and inflammatory signaling in innate immune defenses, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2009) 22:240–273. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Morens D.M., Folkers G.K., Fauci A.S., The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, Nature (2004) 430:242–249. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Moulin H.R., Seuberlich T., Bauhofer O., Bennett L.C., Tratschin J.D., Hofmann M.A., Ruggli N., Nonstructural proteins NS2-3 and NS4A of classical swine fever virus: essential features for infectious particle formation, Virology (2007) 365:376–389. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Mätzener P., Magkouras I., Rümenapf T., Peterhans E., Schweizer M., The viral RNase Erns prevents IFN type-I triggering by pestiviral single- and double-stranded RNAs, Virus Res. (2009) 140:15–23. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Müller A., Rinck G., Thiel H.J., Tautz N., Cell-derived sequences in the N-terminal region of the polyprotein of a cytopathogenic pestivirus, J. Virol. (2003) 77:10663–10669. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Nagai M., Hayashi M., Itou M., Fukutomi T., Akashi H., Kida H., Sakoda Y., Identification of new genetic subtypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 isolated in Japan, Virus Genes (2008) 36:135–139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Oguzoglu T.C., Tan M.T., Toplu N., Demir A.B., Bilge-Dagalp S., Karaoglu T., et al., Border disease virus (BDV) infections of small ruminants in Turkey: a new BDV subgroup?, Vet. Microbiol. (2009) 135:374–379. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Olafson P., MacCallum A.D., Fox F.H., An apparently new transmissible disease of cattle, Cornell Vet. (1946) 36:205–213. [PubMed]
  • Palm N.W., Medzhitov R., Not so fast: adaptive suppression of innate immunity, Nat. Med. (2007) 13:1142–1144. [CrossRef]
  • Pellerin C., van den Hurk J., Lecomte J., Tussen P., Identification of a new group of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains associated with severe outbreaks and high mortalities, Virology (1994) 203:260–268. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Peterhans E., Jungi T.W., Schweizer M., BVDV and innate immunity, Biologicals (2003) 31:107–111. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Peterhans E., Jungi T.W., Schweizer M., How the bovine viral diarrhea virus outwits the immune system, Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (2006) 113:124–129. [PubMed]
  • Peterhans E., Schweizer M., Pestiviruses: how to outmaneuver your hosts, Vet. Microbiol. (2010) 142:18–25. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Pioz M., Loison A., Gibert P., Dubray D., Menaut P., Le Tallec B., et al., Transmission of a pestivirus infection in a population of Pyrenean chamois, Vet. Microbiol. (2007) 119:19–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Potgieter L.N., Immunology of bovine viral diarrhea virus, Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. (1995) 11:501–520. [PubMed]
  • Rinck G., Birghan C., Harada T., Meyers G., Thiel H.J., Tautz N., A cellular J-domain protein modulates polyprotein processing and cytopathogenicity of a pestivirus, J. Virol. (2001) 75:9470–9482. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Rüfenacht J., Schaller P., Audigé L., Strasser M., Peterhans E., Prevalence of cattle infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Switzerland, Vet. Rec. (2000) 147:413–417. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Rümenapf T., Thiel H.-J., Molecular biology of pestiviruses, in: Mettenleiter T.C., Sobrino F. (Eds.), Animal viruses: molecular biology, Caister Academic Press, Norwich, UK, 2008, pp. 39–96.
  • Schirrmeier H., Strebelow G., Depner K., Hoffmann B., Beer M., Genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species, J. Gen. Virol. (2004) 85:3647–3652. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Shepard C.W., Finelli L., Alter M., Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection, Lancet Infect. Dis. (2005) 5:558–567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Shoemaker M.L., Smirnova N.P., Bielefeldt-Ohmann H., Austin K.J., Van Olphen A., Clapper J.A., Hansen T.R., Differential expression of the type I interferon pathway during persistent and transient bovine viral diarrhea virus infection, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2009) 29:23–35. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Siegwart N., Hilbe M., Hässig M., Braun U., Increased risk of BVDV infection of calves from pregnant dams on communal alpine pastures in Switzerland, Vet. J. (2006) 172:386–388. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Smirnova N.P., Bielefeldt-Ohmann H., Van Campen H., Austin K.J., Han H., Montgomery D.L., et al., Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses, Virus Res. (2008) 132:49–58. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Snowden F.M., Emerging and reemerging diseases: a historical perspective, Immunol. Rev. (2008) 225:9–26. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Ståhl K., Kampa J., Alenius S., Wadman A.P., Baule C., Aiumlamai S., Belák S., Natural infection of cattle with an atypical ‘HoBi’-like pestivirus – implications for BVD control and for the safety of biological products, Vet. Res. (2007) 38:517–523. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Stalder H.P., Meier P., Pfaffen G., Wageck-Canal C., Rüfenacht J., Schaller P., et al., Genetic heterogeneity of pestiviruses of ruminants in Switzerland, Prev. Vet. Med. (2005) 72:37–41. [PubMed]
  • Steinman R.M., Hemmi H., Dendritic cells: translating innate to adaptive immunity, in: From innate immunity to immunological memory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006, pp. 17–58. [CrossRef]
  • Tautz N., Meyers G., Thiel H.J., Pathogenesis of mucosal disease, a deadly disease of cattle caused by a pestivirus, Clin. Diagn. Virol. (1998) 10:121–127. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Valdazo-González B., Álvarez-Martínez M., Greiser-Wilke I., Genetic typing and prevalence of border disease virus (BDV) in small ruminant flocks in Spain, Vet. Microbiol. (2006) 117:141–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Valdazo-González B., Álvarez-Martínez M., Sandvik T., Genetic and antigenic typing of border disease virus isolates in sheep from the Iberian Peninsula, Vet. J. (2007) 174:316–324. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vilček Š., Alenius S., Paton D.J., Mittelholzer C., Belák S., Genetic clustering of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in cattle farms: genetic identification and analysis of viruses directly from cattle sera, Vet. J. (1999) 158:33–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vilček Š., Identification of pestiviruses contaminating cell lines and fetal calf sera, Acta Virol. (2001) 45:81–86. [PubMed]
  • Vilček Š., Paton D.J., Ďurkovič B., Strojny L., Ibata G., Moussa A., et al., Bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 can be separated into at least eleven genetic groups, Arch. Virol. (2001) 146:99–115. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vilček Š., Ďurkovič B., Kolesárová M., Greiser-Wilke I., Paton D., Genetic diversity of international bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates: identification of a new BVDV-1 genetic group, Vet. Res. (2004) 35:609–615. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed]
  • Vilček Š., Nettleton P.F., Pestiviruses in wild animals, Vet. Microbiol. (2006) 116:1–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Vivier E., Malissen B., Innate and adaptive immunity: specificities and signaling hierarchies revisited, Nat. Immunol. (2005) 6:17–21. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Woodman Z., Williamson C., HIV molecular epidemiology: transmission and adaptation to human populations, Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS (2009) 4:247–252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Xu X.R., Zhang Q.C., Yu X.L., Liang L., Xiao C., Xiang H., Tu C.C., Sequencing and comparative analysis of a pig bovine viral diarrhea virus genome, Virus Res. (2006) 122:164–170. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Yamane D., Kato K., Tohya Y., Akashi H., The double-stranded RNA-induced apoptosis pathway is involved in the cytopathogenicity of cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus, J. Gen. Virol. (2006) 87:2961–2970. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Yeşilbağ K., Förster C., Bank-Wolf B., Yilmaz Z., Alkan F., Ozkul A., et al., Genetic heterogeneity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from Turkey: identification of a new subgroup in BVDV-1, Vet. Microbiol. (2008) 130:258–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Zhao J., Yang X.M., Auh S.L., Kim K.D., Tang H., Fu Y.X., Do adaptive immune cells suppress or activate innate immunity?, Trends Immunol. (2009) 30:8–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]