Free access
Review
Issue
Vet. Res.
Volume 40, Number 2, March-April 2009
Adaptative strategies of vector-borne pathogens to vectorial transmission
Number of page(s) 22
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2009011
Published online 14 March 2009
How to cite this article Vet. Res. (2009) 40:29
References of  Vet. Res. (2009) 40:29
  1. Abbott R.C., Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Floyd-Hawkins K.A., Kikuchi Y., Koehler J.E., Pedersen N.C., Experimental and natural infection with Bartonella henselae in domestic cats, Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1997) 20:41–51 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  2. Abdollahi-Roodsaz S., Joosten L.A., Koenders M.I., Devesa I., Roelofs M.F., Radstake T.R., et al., Stimulation of TLR2 and TLR4 differentially skews the balance of T cells in a mouse model of arthritis, J. Clin. Invest. (2008) 118:205–216 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  3. Alsmark C.M., Frank A.C., Karlberg E.O., Legault B.A., Ardell D.H., Canbäck B., et al., The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:9716–9721 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  4. Angelakis E., Lepidi H., Canel A., Rispal P., Perraudeau F., Barre I., et al., Human case of Bartonella alsatica lymphadenitis, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2008) 14:1951–1953 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  5. Arvand M., Feil E.J., Giladi M., Boulouis H.J., Viezens J., Multi-locus sequence typing of Bartonella henselae isolates from three continents reveals hypervirulent and feline-associated clones, PLoS ONE (2007) 2(12):e1346.
  6. Arvand M., Viezens J., Berghoff J., Prolonged Bartonella henselae bacteremia caused by reinfection in cats, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2008) 14:152–154 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  7. Bai Y., Kosoy M.Y., Ray C., Brinkerhoff R.J., Collinge S.K., Temporal and spatial patterns of Bartonella infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), Microb. Ecol. (2008) 56:373–382 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  8. Barbour A.G., Restrepo B.I., Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2000) 6:1–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  9. Bass J.W., Vincent J.M., Person D.A., The expanding spectrum of Bartonella infections: I. Bartonellosis and trench fever, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1997) 16:2–10 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  10. Battistini T., La verrue péruvienne (sa transmission par le Phlébotome), Rev. Sud-Amer. Med. Chirurg. (1931) 2:719–724.
  11. Berghoff J., Viezens J., Guptill L., Fabbi M., Arvand M., Bartonella henselae exists as a mosaic of different genetic variants in the infected host, Microbiology (2007) 153:2045–2051 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  12. Bergmans A.M., Schellekens J.F., van Embden J.D., Schouls L.M., Predominance of two Bartonella henselae variants among cat-scratch disease patients in The Netherlands, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1996) 34:254–260 [PubMed].
  13. Bergmans A.M., de Jong C.M., van Amerongen G., Schot C.S., Schouls L.M., Prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic cats in The Netherlands, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) 35:2256–2261 [PubMed].
  14. Billeter S.A., Levy M.G., Chomel B.B., Breitschwerdt E.B., Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission, Med. Vet. Entomol. (2008) 22:1–15 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  15. Birtles R.J., Hazel S.M., Bennett M., Bown K., Raoult D., Begon M., Longitudinal monitoring of the dynamics of infections due to Bartonella species in UK woodland rodents, Epidemiol. Infect. (2001) 126:323–329 [PubMed].
  16. Boonjakuakul J., Gerns H., Chen Y., Hicks L., Minnick M., Dixon S., et al., Proteomic and immunoblot analyses of Bartonella quintana total membrane proteins identify antigens recognized by sera from infected patients, Infect. Immun. (2007) 75:2548–2561 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  17. Bouchouicha R., Durand B., Monteil M., Chomel B.B., Berrich M., Arvand M., et al., Molecular epidemiology of feline and human Bartonella henselae isolates or strains using multiple-locus variablenumber tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2009) 15(5): epub.
  18. Boulouis H.J., Barrat F., Bermond D., Bernex F., Thibault D., Heller R., et al., Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii infection in experimentally infected mice and pathogenic effect on reproductive functions, Infect. Immun. (2001) 69:5313–5317 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  19. Boulouis H.J., Chang C.C., Henn J.B., Kasten R.W., Chomel B.B., Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections, Vet. Res. (2005) 36:383–410 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [EDP Sciences].
  20. Bown K.J., Bennet M., Begon M., Flea-borne Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in bank voles, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2004) 10:684–687 [PubMed].
  21. Breitschwerdt E.B., Maggi R.G., Duncan A.W., Nicholson W.L., Hegarty B.C., Woods C.W., Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2007) 13:938–941 [PubMed].
  22. Breitschwerdt E.B., Maggi R.G., Sigmon B., Nicholson W.L., Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2007) 45:270–272 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  23. Breitschwerdt E.B., Maggi R.G., Nicholson W.L., Cherry N.A., Woods C.W., Bartonella sp. bacteremia in patients with neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2008) 46:2856–2861 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  24. Brouqui P., Lascola B., Roux V., Raoult D., Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients, N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) 340:184–189 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  25. Bruce D., Trench fever: final report of the War Office Trench Fever Investigation Committee, J. Hyg. (1921) 20:258–288 [CrossRef].
  26. Byam W., Lloyd L.L., Trench fever: its epidemiology and endemiology, R. Soc. Med. Proc. (1920) 13:1–27.
  27. Cáceres A.G., Geographic distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vector of human bartonellosis in Peru, Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (1993) 35:485–490 [PubMed] (in Spanish).
  28. Cáceres A.G., Galati E.A., Le Pont F., Velasquez C., Possible role of Lutzomyia maranonensis and Lutzomyia robusta (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of human bartonellosis in three provinces of region nor Oriental del Marañon, Peru, Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo (1997) 39:51–52 [PubMed].
  29. Cadenas M.B., Bradley J., Maggi R.G., Takara M., Hegarty B.C., Breitschwerdt E.B., Molecular characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2008) 46:1858–1860 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  30. Carron M.A., Tran V.R., Sugawa C., Coticchia J.M., Identification of Helicobacter pylori biofilms in human gastric mucosa, J. Gastrointest. Surg. (2006) 10:712–717 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  31. Chang C.C., Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Heller R.M., Ueno H., Yamamoto K., et al., Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North America, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2000) 6:306–311 [PubMed].
  32. Chang C.C., Kasten R.W., Chomel B.B., Simpson D.C., Hew C.M., Kordick D.L., et al., Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) 38:4193–4200 [PubMed].
  33. Chang C.C., Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Romano V., Tietze N., Molecular evidence of Bartonella spp. in questing adult Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) 39:1221–1226 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  34. Chang C.C., Hayashidani H., Pusterla N., Kasten R.W., Madigan J.E., Chomel B.B., Investigation of Bartonella infection in ixodid ticks from California, Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2002) 25:229–236 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  35. Chomel B.B., Abbott R.C., Kasten R.W., Floyd-Hawkins K.A., Kass P.H., Glaser C.A., et al., Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) 33:2445–2450 [PubMed].
  36. Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Floyd-Hawkins K.A., Chi B., Yamamoto K., Roberts-Wilson J., et al., Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1996) 34:1952–1956 [PubMed].
  37. Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Sykes J.E., Boulouis H.J., Breitschwerdt E.B., Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2003) 990:267–278 [CrossRef].
  38. Chomel B.B., Boulouis H.J., Breitschwerdt E.B., Cat scratch disease and other zoonotic Bartonella infections, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2004) 224:1270–1279 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  39. Chomel B.B., Boulouis H.J., Maruyama S., Breitschwerdt E.B., Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2006) 12:389–394 [PubMed].
  40. Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Henn J.B., Molia S., Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2006) 1078:410–415 [CrossRef].
  41. Christie P.J., Atmakuri K., Krishnamoorthy V., Jakubowski S., Cascales E., Biogenesis, architecture, and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (2005) 59:451–485 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  42. Chung C.Y., Kasten R.W., Paff S.M., Van Horn B.A., Vayssier-Taussat M., Boulouis H.J., Chomel B.B., Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2004) 10:1311–1313 [PubMed].
  43. Colebrook E., Wall R., Ectoparasites of livestock in Europe and the Mediterranean region, Vet. Parasitol. (2004) 120:251–274 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  44. Coleman S.A., Minnick M.F., Differential expression of the invasion-associated locus B (ialB) gene of Bartonella bacilliformis in response to environmental cues, Microb. Pathog. (2003) 34:179–186 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  45. Cotté V., Bonnet S., Le Rhun D., Le Naour E., Chauvin A., Boulouis H.J., et al., Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2008) 14:1074–1080 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  46. Dale C., Moran N.A., Molecular interactions between bacterial symbionts and their hosts, Cell (2006) 126:453–465 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  47. Dehio C., Bartonella interactions with endothelial cells and erythrocytes, Trends Microbiol. (2001) 9:279–285 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  48. Dehio C., Molecular and cellular basis of Bartonella pathogenesis, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (2004) 58:365–390 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  49. Dehio C., Sauder U., Hiestand R., Isolation of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from Lipoptena cervi, a blood-sucking arthropod causing deer ked dermatitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) 42:5320–5323 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  50. Dehio C., Bartonella-host-cell interactions and vascular tumour formation, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (2005) 3:621–631 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  51. Dehio C., Infection-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella and their diverse roles in host cell interaction, Cell. Microbiol. (2008) 10:1591–1598 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  52. Demers D.M., Bass J.W., Vincent J.M., Person D.A., Noyes D.K., Staege C.M., et al., Cat-scratch disease in Hawaii: etiology and seroepidemiology, J. Pediatr. (1995) 127:23–26 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  53. Dillon B., Valenzuela J., Don R., Blanckenberg D., Wigney D.I., Malik R., et al., Limited diversity among human isolates of Bartonella henselae, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) 40:4691–4699 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  54. Engel P., Dehio C., Genomics of host-restricted pathogens of the genus Bartonella, in: Volff J.-N. (Ed.), Microbial Pathogenomics, Genome Dynamics, Vol. 6, Karger, Lyon, 2009.
  55. Eskow E., Rao R.V., Mordechai E., Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and Bartonella henselae: evidence for a novel tick-borne disease complex, Arch. Neurol. (2001) 58:1357–1363 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  56. Finkelstein J.L., Brown T.P., O'Reilly K.L., Wedincamp J. Jr., Foil L.D., Studies on the growth of Bartonella henselae in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), J. Med. Entomol. (2002) 39:915–919 [PubMed].
  57. Foil L., Andress E., Freeland R.L., Roy A.F., Rutledge R., Triche P.C., O'Reilly K.L., Experimental infection of domestic cats with Bartonella henselae by inoculation of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) feces, J. Med. Entomol. (1998) 35:625–628 [PubMed].
  58. Fournier P.E, Minnick M.F., Lepidi H., Salvo E., Raoult D., Experimental model of human body louse infection using green fluorescent protein-expressing Bartonella quintana, Infect. Immun. (2001) 69:1876–1879 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  59. Fournier P.E., Ndihokubwayo J.B., Guidran J., Kelly P.J., Raoult D., Human pathogens in body and head lice, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2002) 8:1515–1518 [PubMed].
  60. Gilmore R.D. Jr., Bellville T.M., Sviat S.L., Frace M., The Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis immunodominant surface antigen BrpA gene, encoding a 382-kD protein composed of repetitive sequences, is a member of a multigene family conserved among Bartonella species, Infect. Immun. (2005) 73:3128–3136 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  61. Gurfield A.N., Boulouis H.J., Chomel B.B., Heller R., Kasten R.W., Yamamoto K., Piemont Y., Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) 35:2120–2123 [PubMed].
  62. Halos L., Jamal T., Maillard R., Girard B., Guillot J., Chomel B., et al., Role of Hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) 70:6302–6305 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  63. Heller R., Artois M., Xemar V., De Briel D., Gehin H., Jaulhac B., et al., Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in stray cats, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) 35:1327–1331 [PubMed].
  64. Heller R., Kubina M., Mariet P., Riegel P., Delacour G., Dehio C., et al., Bartonella alsatica sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rabbits, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:283–288 [PubMed].
  65. Hertig M., Phlebotomus and Carrión's disease: I. Introduction, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1942) s1-22:2–10.
  66. Hertig M., Phlebotomus and Carrión's Disease: II. Transmission experiments with wild sandflies, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1942) s1-22:11–22.
  67. Higgins J.A., Radulovic S., Jaworski D.C., Azad A.F., Acquisition of the cat scratch disease agent Bartonella henselae by cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), J. Med. Entomol. (1996) 33:490–495 [PubMed].
  68. Iredell J., Blanckenberg D., Arvand M., Grauling S., Feil E.J., Birtles R.J., Characterization of the natural population of Bartonella henselae by multilocus sequence typing, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) 41:5071–5079 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  69. Ito S., Vinson J.W., Fine structure of Rickettsia quintana cultivated in vitro and in the louse, J. Bacteriol. (1965) 89:481–495 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  70. Jendro M.C., Weber G., Brabant T., Zeidler H., Wollenhaupt J., Reactive arthritis after cat bite: a rare manifestation of cat scratch disease–case report and overview, Z. Rheumatol. (1998) 57:159–163 [CrossRef] [PubMed] (in German).
  71. Kabeya H., Maruyama S., Irei M., Takahashi R., Yamashita M., Mikami T., Genomic variations among Bartonella henselae isolates derived from naturally infected cats, Vet. Microbiol. (2002) 89:211–221 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  72. Kabeya H., Tsunoda F., Maruyama S., Mikami T., Immune responses of immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice experimentally infected with Bartonella henselae, J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2003) 65:479–484 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  73. Kabeya H., Sase M., Yamashita M., Maruyama S., Predominant T helper 2 immune responses against Bartonella henselae in naturally infected cats, Microbiol. Immunol. (2006) 50:171–178 [PubMed].
  74. Kaiser P.O., Riess T., Wagner C.L., Linke D., Lupas A.N., Schwarz H., et al., The head of Bartonella adhesin A is crucial for host cell interaction of Bartonella henselae, Cell. Microbiol. (2008) 10:2223–2234 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  75. Kelly P., Rolain J.M., Maggi R., Sontakke S., Keene B., Hunter S., et al., Bartonella quintana endocarditis in dogs, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2006) 12:1869–1872 [PubMed].
  76. Koehler J.E., Quinn F.D., Berger T.G., LeBoit P.E., Tappero J.W., Isolation of Rochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis, N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) 327:1625–1631 [PubMed].
  77. Koehler J.E., Glaser C.A., Tappero J.T., Rochalimaea henselae infection: a new zoonosis with the domestic cat as reservoir, JAMA (1994) 271:531–535 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  78. Koesling J., Aebischer T., Falch C., Schulein R., Dehio C., Cutting edge: antibody-mediated cessation of hemotropic infection by the intraerythrocytic mouse pathogen Bartonella grahamii, J. Immunol. (2001) 167:11–14 [PubMed].
  79. Kordick D.L., Wilson K.H., Sexton D.J., Hadfield T.L., Berkhoff H.A., Breitschwerdt E.B., Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) 33:3245–3251 [PubMed].
  80. Kordick D.L., Breitschwerdt E.B., Persistent infection of pets within a household with three Bartonella species, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1998) 4:325–328 [PubMed].
  81. Kosoy M.Y., Regnery R.L., Tzianabos T., Marston E.L., Jones D.C., Green D., et al., Distribution, diversity, and host specificity of Bartonella in rodents from the Southeastern United States, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) 57:578–588 [PubMed].
  82. Kostrzewski J., The epidemiology of trench fever, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Biol. (1949) 7:233–263.
  83. Kruszewska D., Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S., Unknown species of rickettsiae isolated from Ixodes ricinus tick in Wałcz, Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. (1996) 41:129–135 [PubMed].
  84. Kyme P., Dillon B., Iredell J., Phase variation in Bartonella henselae, Microbiology (2003) 149:621–629 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  85. La V.D., Hung L.T., Aboudharam G., Raoult D., Drancourt M., Bartonella quintana in domestic cat, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2005) 11:1287–1289 [PubMed].
  86. LeBoit P.E., Berger T.G., Egbert B.M., Beckstead J.H., Yen T.S.B., Stoler M.H., Bacillary angiomatosis: the histopathology and differential diagnosis of a pseudoneoplastic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease, Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1989) 13:909–920 [PubMed].
  87. Li W., Chomel B.B., Maruyama S., Guptil L., Sander A., Raoult D., Fournier P.E., Multispacer typing to study the genotypic distribution of Bartonella henselae populations, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) 44:2499–2506 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  88. Linke D., Riess T., Autenrieth I.B., Lupas A., Kempf V.A., Trimeric autotransporter adhesins: variable structure, common function, Trends Microbiol. (2006) 14:264–270 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  89. Ljungh A., Wadstrom T., Binding of extracellular matrix proteins, in: Doyle R.J., Ofek I. (Eds.), Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 253, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pp. 501–515.
  90. LoGiudice K., Ostfeld R.S., Schmidt K.A., Keesing F., The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2003) 100:567–571 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  91. Lucey D., Dolan M.J., Moss C.W., Garcia M., Hollis D.G., Wegner S., et al., Relapsing illness due to Rochalimaea henselae in immunocompetent hosts: implication for therapy and new epidemiological associations, Clin. Infect. Dis. (1992) 14:683–688 [PubMed].
  92. MacKichan J.K., Gerns H.L., Chen Y.T., Zhang P., Koehler J.E., A SacB mutagenesis strategy reveals that the Bartonella quintana variably expressed outer membrane proteins are required for bloodstream infection of the host, Infect. Immun. (2008) 76:788–795 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  93. Maggi R.G., Chomel B., Hegarty B.C., Henn J., Breitschwerdt E.B., A Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii typing scheme based upon 16S–23S ITS and Pap31 sequences from dog, coyote, gray fox, and human isolates, Mol. Cell. Probes (2006) 20:128–134 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  94. Maillard R., Grimard B., Chastant-Maillard S., Chomel B., Delcroix T., Gandoin C., et al., Effects of cow age and pregnancy on Bartonella infection in a herd of dairy cattle, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) 44:42–46 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  95. Marié J.L., Fournier P.E., Rolain J.M., Briolant S., Davoust B., Raoult D., Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana. B. elizabethae, B. koehlerae, B. doshiae, B. taylorii, and Rickettsia felis in rodent fleas collected in Kabul, Afghanistan, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2006) 74:436–439 [PubMed].
  96. Matsumoto K., Berrada Z.L., Klinger E., Goethert H.K., Telford S.R. III, Molecular detection of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from ectoparasites of deer in Massachusetts, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. (2008) 8:549–554 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  97. Merrell D.S., Falkow S., Frontal and stealth attack strategies in microbial pathogenesis, Nature (2004) 430:250–256 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  98. Monteil M., Durand B., Bouchouicha R., Petit E., Chomel B., Arvand M., et al., Development of discriminatory multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Bartonella henselae, Microbiology (2007) 153:1141–1148 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  99. Mooser H., Weyer F., Experimental infection of Macacus rhesus with Rickettsia quintana (trench fever), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1953) 83:699–701 [PubMed].
  100. Noguchi H., The experimental transmission of Bartonella bacilliformis by ticks (Dermacentor andersoni), J. Exp. Med. (1926) 44:729–734 [CrossRef].
  101. Noguchi H., Shannon R.C., Tilden E.B., Tyler J.R., Etiology of Oroya fever, XIV. The insect vectors of Carrion's Disease, J. Exp. Med. (1929) 49:993–1011 [CrossRef].
  102. Nystedt B., Frank A.C., Thollesson M., Andersson S.G., Diversifying selection and concerted evolution of a type IV secretion system in Bartonella, Mol. Biol. Evol. (2008) 25:287–300 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  103. O'Rourke L.G., Pitulle C., Hegarty B.C., Kraycirik S., Killary K.A., Grosenstein P., et al., Bartonella quintana in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2005) 11:1931–1934 [PubMed].
  104. Pappalardo B.L., Brown T., Gebhardt D., Sontakke S., Breitschwerdt E.B., Cyclic CD8+ lymphopenia in dogs experimentally infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2000) 75:43–57 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  105. Pappalardo B.L., Brown T.T., Tompkins M., Breitschwerdt E.B., Immunopathology of Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) in experimentally infected dogs, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) 83:125–147 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  106. Popa C., Abdollahi-Roodsaz S., Joosten L.A.B., Takahashi N., Sprong T., Matera G., et al., Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide is a natural antagonist of toll-like receptor 4, Infect. Immun. (2007) 75:4831–4837 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  107. Raoult D., Roux V., The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases, Clin. Infect. Dis. (1999) 29:888–911 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  108. Raoult D., Roblot F., Rolain J.M., Besnier J.M., Loulergue J., Bastides F., Choutet P., First isolation of Bartonella alsatica from a valve of a patient with endocarditis, J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) 44:278–279 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  109. Reeves W.K., Nelder M.P., Cobb K.D., Dasch G.A., Bartonella spp. in deer keds, Lipoptena mazamae (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), from Georgia and South Carolina, USA, J. Wildl. Dis. (2006) 42:391–396 [PubMed].
  110. Riess T., Andersson S.G., Lupas A., Schaller M., Schäfer A., Kyme P., et al., Bartonella adhesin A mediates a proangiogenic host cell response, J. Exp. Med. (2004) 200:1267–1278 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  111. Robertson B.D., Meyer T.F., Genetic variation in pathogenic bacteria, Trends Genet. (1992) 8:422–428 [PubMed].
  112. Rolain J.M., Arnoux D., Parzy D., Sampol J., Raoult D., Experimental infection of human erythrocytes from alcoholic patients with Bartonella quintana, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2003) 990:605–611 [CrossRef].
  113. Rolain J.M., Franc M., Davoust B., Raoult D., Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, Rickettsia felis, and Wolbachia pipientis in cat fleas, France, Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2003) 9:338–342 [PubMed].
  114. Rolain J.M., Rousset E., La Scola B., Duquesnel R., Raoult D., Bartonella schoenbuchensis isolated from the blood of a French cow, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (2003) 990:236–238 [CrossRef].
  115. Saenz H.L., Dehio C., Signature-tagged mutagenesis: technical advances in a negative selection method for virulence gene identification, Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (2005) 8:612–619 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  116. Saenz H.L., Engel P., Stoeckli M.C., Lanz C., Raddatz G., Vayssier-Taussat M., et al., Genomic analysis of Bartonella identifies type IV secretion systems as host adaptability factors, Nat. Genet. (2007) 39:1469–1476 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  117. Schmid M.C., Schulein R., Dehio M., Denecker G., Carena I., Dehio C., The VirB type IV secretion system of Bartonella henselae mediates invasion, proinflammatory activation and antiapoptotic protection of endothelial cells, Mol. Microbiol. (2004) 52:81–92 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  118. Schmid M.C., Scheidegger F., Dehio M., Balmelle-Devaux N., Schulein R., Guye P., et al., A translocated bacterial protein protects vascular endothelial cells from apoptosis, PLoS Pathog. (2006) 2:e115.
  119. Schouls L.M., Van De Pol I., Rijpkema S.G., Schot C.S., Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks, J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) 37:2215–2222 [PubMed].
  120. Schröder G., Dehio C., Virulence-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella, Trends Microbiol. (2005) 13:336–342 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  121. Schulein R., Seubert A., Gille C., Lanz C., Hansmann Y., Piémont Y., Dehio C., Invasion and persistent intracellular colonization of erythrocytes. A unique parasitic strategy of the emerging pathogen Bartonella, J. Exp. Med. (2001) 193:1077–1086 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  122. Schulein R., Dehio C., The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of Bartonella is essential for establishing intraerythrocytic infection, Mol. Microbiol. (2002) 46:1053–1067 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  123. Schulein R., Guye P., Rhomberg T.A., Schmid M.C., Schröder G., Vergunst A.C., et al., A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2005) 102:856–861 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  124. Seki N., Kasai S., Saito N., Komagata O., Mihara M., Sasaki T., et al., Quantitative analysis of proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana in body lice, Pediculus humanus L., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2007) 77:562–566 [PubMed].
  125. Seubert A., Hiestand R., de la Cruz F., Dehio C., A bacterial conjugation machinery recruited for pathogenesis, Mol. Microbiol. (2003) 49:1253–1266 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  126. Stevenson H.L., Bai Y., Kosoy M.Y., Montenieri J.A., Lowell J.L., Chu M.C., Gage K.L., Detection of novel Bartonella strains and Yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, J. Med. Entomol. (2003) 40:329–337 [PubMed].
  127. Telfer S., Bown K.J., Sekules R., Begon M., Hayden T., Birtles R., Disruption of a host-parasite system following the introduction of an exotic host species, Parasitology (2005) 130:661–668 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  128. Telfer S., Begon M., Bennett M., Bown K.J., Burthe S., Lambin X., et al., Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics, Parasitology (2007) 134:413–425 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  129. Telfer S., Clough H.E., Birtles R., Bennett M., Carslake D., Helyar S., Begon M., Ecological differences and coexistence in a guild of microparasites: Bartonella in wild rodents, Ecology (2007) 88:1841–1849 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  130. Townsend C.H.T., The transmission of verruga by Phlebotomus, J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1913) 61:1717–1718.
  131. Tsao J.I., Molecular adaptations of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete in the context of reproductive fitness in natural transmission cycles, Vet. Res. (2009) 40.
  132. Viezens J., Arvand M., Simultaneous presence of two different copies of the 16S rRNA gene in Bartonella henselae, Microbiology (2008) 154:2881–2886 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  133. Villaseca P., Padilla C., Ventura G., Samalvides F., Yañez H., Chevarría L., et al., Importancia de la Lytzomyia peruensis en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Carrión en el Valle Sagrado de los Incas, Urubamba- Cuzco, Perú , Rev. Med. Exp. (1999) 25:28–30.
  134. Vinson J.W., Varela G., Molina-Pasquel C., Trench fever, III. Induction of clinical disease in volunteers inoculated with Rickettsia quintana propagated on blood agar, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1969) 18:713–722 [PubMed].
  135. Weigl R., Further studies on Rickettsia rochalimae, J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1924) 27:14–15.
  136. Weyer F., Biological relationships between lice (Anoplura) and microbial agents, Ann. Rev. Entomol. (1960) 5:405–420 [CrossRef].
  137. Yamamoto K., Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Hew C.M., Weber D.K., Lee W.L., Experimental infection of specific pathogen free (SPF) cats with two different strains of Bartonella henselae type I: a comparative study, Vet. Res. (2002) 33:669–684 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [EDP Sciences].
  138. Yamamoto K., Chomel B.B., Kasten R.W., Hew C.M., Weber D.K., Lee W.L., et al., Infection and re-infection of domestic cats with various Bartonella species or types: B. henselae type I is protective against heterologous challenge with B. henselae type II, Vet. Microbiol. (2003) 92:73–86 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  139. Zähringer U., Lindner B., Knirel Y.A., van den Akker W.M., Hiestand R., Heine H., Dehio C., Structure and biological activity of the short-chain lipopolysaccharide from Bartonella henselae ATCC 49882T, J. Biol. Chem. (2004) 279:21046–21054 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  140. Zangwill K.M., Hamilton D.H., Perkins B.A., Regnery R.L., Plikaytis B.D., Hadler J.L., et al., Cat scratch disease in Connecticut, Epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test, N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) 329:8–13 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
  141. Zhang P., Chomel B.B., Schau M.K., Goo J.S., Droz S., Kelminson K.L., et al., A family of variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomp) mediates adhesion and autoaggregation in Bartonella quintana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2004) 101:13630–13635 [CrossRef] [PubMed].