A new concept to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity by parenteral vaccination as applied to the development of a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccineTetsuo Mizuno, Richard Ploeg and Darren Trott
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia
(Received 12 December 2006; accepted 19 April 2007; published online 31 August 2007)
Abstract - A new concept of slow "drip feeding" that enables activation of mucosal as well as systemic immunity following parenteral vaccination was demonstrated using Salmonella Dublin in a mouse model. The live vaccine candidate, N-RM25, generated from a wild S. Dublin strain utilising metabolic-drift (spontaneous chromosomal) mutations had a unique sensitivity to bile and restricted growth in the presence of a very low concentration of bile salts No. 3 (0.075% (w/v)) but also had the ability to survive in a high concentration (19.2%) of the substance. Following intraperitoneal administration with 107 cfu, N-RM25 colonised and survived (101-103 cfu/g) in the liver and spleen of mice for over 24 days without causing disease. A small number of the mutant organisms also penetrated the gall bladder and gut, most likely via the enterohepatic circulation. N-RM25 induced significant levels of serum IgG, IgA and intestinal secretory IgA. A second metabolic-drift mutant (R-NM29) that was rapidly eliminated from the liver and spleen and highly unlikely to penetrate the gall bladder and gut, stimulated some systemic immunity, but induced no mucosal immunity because it did not reach the immune stimulation sites within the gut. In vaccine trials, N-RM25 was significantly more effective in eliminating the homologous challenge bacteria (S. Dublin wild strain FD436) from the internal organs and intestinal lumen when compared to R-NM29 and the negative control. N-RM25 prevented the development of systemic infection and produced 100% protection.
Key words: Salmonella Dublin / bile / live attenuated vaccine / parenteral vaccination / mucosal immunity
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© INRA, EDP Sciences 2007