Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitisBenoît Muylkensa, Julien Thirya, Philippe Kirtena, Frédéric Schyntsb and Etienne Thirya
a Virology, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Boulevard de Colonster 20, B43b, 4000 Liège, Belgium
b Department of Animal Virology, CER group, rue du Carmel, 1, 6900 Marloie, Belgium
(Received 4 September 2006; accepted 15 November 2006; published online 25 January 2007)
Abstract - Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the maintenance of BoHV-1 within a cattle herd. This paper focuses on an updated pathogenesis based on a molecular characterization of BoHV-1 and the description of the virus cycle. Special emphasis is accorded to the impact of the latency and reactivation cycle on the epidemiology and the control of BoHV-1. Several European countries have initiated BoHV-1 eradication schemes because of the significant losses incurred by disease and trading restrictions. The vaccines used against BoHV-1 are described in this context where the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals is of critical importance to achieve BoHV-1 eradication.
Key words: alphaherpesvirus / bovine / infectious bovine rhinotracheitis / latency / marker vaccine
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© INRA, EDP Sciences 2007